From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Unintended consequences are the surprising results of an action or decision.
- not intended (unintended)
- not anticipated (unanticipated)
- not foreseen (unforeseen.
There are three types of unintended consequences:
- A positive, unexpected good effect is also described as good luck
- A negative, unanticipated bad effect in addition to what was expected
- A perverse, unforeseen effect which is outside the scope or opposite to what was intended
Possible causes of unanticipated consequences include
- In other words, it is impossible to anticipate everything, and this leads to an analysis which is not detailed enough.
- In other words, there is an incorrect or mistaken analysis. For example, error might result from following a process or procedure which worked in the past but which does not work well enough or not at all in a new situation.
- Immediate interest
- In other words, the focus on short-term goals may be viewed as more important than long-term interests.
- Basic values
- In other words, there may be factors which require or prohibit certain actions regardless of the long-term results.
Select examples [change]
There are examples and kinds of unanticipated consequences:
- Unexpected and good
- Aspirin is a pain reliever. Among other things, aspirin affects the blood's ability to clot. An unintended consequence is that aspirin is sometimes good for people with heart problems.
- Unexpected and bad
- Rabbits were introduced in Australia and New Zealand; but without any natural enemies to slow the growth in numbers, there was an unanticipated consequence. There was a problem of too many rabbits in both countries.
- Unexpected and worse
- In India, the southern provinces had the problem of too many snakes. The government tried to solve the problem by paying for dead cobras. This was intended to bring down the number of cobras. Instead, it led to the breeding of cobras. When the government stopped paying for dead cobras, the snakes were released -- and the problem was worse than before the government tried to do something about it.
Related pages [change]
- Norton, Rob. "Unintended Consequences," The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics; retrieved 2012-6-25.
- Hollander, Jason. "Renowned Columbia Sociologist and National Medal of Science Winner Robert K. Merton Dies at 92," Columbia News (US). February 25, 2003; retrieved 2012-6-25.
- Smith, Adam. (1791). An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Vol. 2, p. 273.
- Merton, Robert K. "The Unanticipated Consequences of Purposive Social Action," American Sociological Review, Vol. 1, Issue 6, pp. 894–904; retrieved 2012-6-25.
- Merton, pp. 898-901 [PDF 6-9 of 12]; retrieved 2012-6-25.
- Merton, p. 901 [PDF 9 of 12]; retrieved 2012-6-25.
- Merton, pp. 901-903 [PDF 9-11 of 12]; retrieved 2012-6-25.
- Merton, pp. 903 [PDF 9-11 of 12]; retrieved 2012-6-25.
- "Aspirin heart warning," BBC News (UK). 15 February 2001; retrieved 2012-6-25.
- "The State Barrier Fence of Western Australia,"; "Rabbits: Introduction into New Zealand"; retrieved 2012-6-25.
- Brickman, Leslie H. (2002). Preparing the 21st Century Church, p. 326.