Western civilization or Western culture is made up of North America, Central America, South America, and Europe from Iceland to Moscow, Russia, as well as Australia, New Zealand, and the Philippines. Western civilization was defined by the Historian Arnold Toynbee as that part of the world in which those who practice the Christian religion are a majority. By this definition, parts of Africa would now also be part of Western civilization since many Africans have been converted to Christianity since the 1950s. The most common languages spoken in Western civilization are English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Dutch, Italian, Ukrainian, Russian, and Tagalog.
- Toynbee, Arnold A Study of History Volume XI—Historical Atlas and Gazetteer London:1959 Oxford University Press Map, Page 93 “Civilization Current in AD 1952” –Western Civilization is shown as including the Americas, Europe, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, and the Philippines.