Acid–base reaction

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An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a base. The products of such a reaction are a salt and water.

The reaction can be simplified to

+ H+
(aq) → H

The other ions remain constant because they are not affected by the reaction. They are called spectator ions.

Acids and oxides[change | change source]

An example of an acid-oxide reaction is sulfuric acid and copper(II) oxide reacting to form copper sulfate and water:

H2SO4 + CuO —> CuSO4 + H2O

Another example of an acid-oxide reaction is nitric acid reacting with sodium oxide to form sodium nitrate and water:

2 HNO3 + Na2O —> 2 NaNO3 + H2O

The general equation is:

acid + oxide = salt + water

Acids and hydroxides[change | change source]

This is one of the more common acid-base reactions. This reaction is one of the few processes to make sodium chloride using hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide:

HCl + NaOH —> NaCl + H2O

Acids and carbonates[change | change source]

An acid can also react with a carbonate, which is a relatively weak base. An example is acetic acid reacting with calcium carbonate to form calcium acetate, carbon dioxide and water:

2 CH3COOH + CaCO3 —> Ca(CH3COO)2 + CO2 + H2O

The products of an acid-carbonate reaction is a soluble salt, carbon dioxide and water.