An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a base. The products of such a reaction are a salt and water.
The reaction can be simplified to
(aq) + H+
(aq) → H
The other ions remain constant because they are not affected by the reaction. They are called spectator ions.
An example of an acid-oxide reaction is sulfuric acid and copper(II) oxide reacting to form copper sulfate and water:
- H2SO4 + CuO —> CuSO4 + H2O
Another example of an acid-oxide reaction is nitric acid reacting with sodium oxide to form sodium nitrate and water:
- 2 HNO3 + Na2O —> 2 NaNO3 + H2O
The general equation is:
- acid + oxide = salt + water
This is one of the more common acid-base reactions. This reaction is one of the few processes to make sodium chloride using hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide:
- HCl + NaOH —> NaCl + H2O
An acid can also react with a carbonate, which is a relatively weak base. An example is
acetic acid reacting with calcium carbonate to form calcium acetate, carbon dioxide and water:
- 2 CH3COOH + CaCO3 —> Ca(CH3COO)2 + CO2 + H2O
The products of an acid-carbonate reaction is a soluble salt, carbon dioxide and water.