Ammonium chloride

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Ammonium chloride
Names
IUPAC name
Ammonium chloride
Other names
Sal ammoniac, Salmiac, Nushadir salt, Sal armagnac, Salt armoniack, Salmiak
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.031.976
EC Number 235-186-4
E number E510 (acidity regulators, ...)
KEGG
PubChem {{{value}}}
RTECS number BP4550000
UNII
UN number 3077
SMILES {{{value}}}
Properties
ClH4N
Molar mass 53.49 g·mol−1
Appearance White solid, hygroscopic
Odor Odorless
Density 1.519 g/cm3[1]
Melting point 338 °C (640 °F; 611 K) decomposes, sublimes[1]
Boiling point 520 °C (968 °F; 793 K)
Sublimes at 337.6 °C[2]
ΔsublHo = 176.1 kJ/mol
244 g/L (−15 °C)
294 g/L (0 °C)
383.0 g/L (25 °C)
454.4 g/L (40 °C)
740.8 g/L (100 °C)[3]
30.9 (395 g/L)[4]
Solubility Soluble in liquid ammonia, hydrazine,
Slightly soluble in acetone
Insoluble in diethyl ether, ethyl acetate[2]
Solubility in methanol 32 g/kg (17 °C)
33.5 g/kg (19 °C)
35.4 g/kg (25 °C)[2]
Solubility in ethanol 6 g/L (19 °C)[5]
Solubility in glycerol 97 g/kg[2]
Solubility in sulfur dioxide 0.09 g/kg (0 °C)
0.031 g/kg (25 °C)[2]
Solubility in acetic acid 0.67 g/kg (16.6 °C)[2]
Vapor pressure 133.3 Pa (160.4 °C)
6.5 kPa (250 °C)
33.5 kPa (300 °C)[5]
Acidity (pKa) 9.24
-36.7·10−6 cm3/mol[6]
1.642 (20 °C)[2]
Structure
CsCl, cP2[7]
Pm3m, No. 221
a = 0.3876 nm
1
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−314.43 kJ/mol[5]
Standard molar
entropy
So298
94.56 J/mol·K[5]
Specific heat capacity, C 84.1 J/mol·K[5]
Pharmacology
B05XA04 (WHO) G04BA01 (WHO)
Hazards
NFPA 704

NFPA 704.svg

0
2
0
 
Flash point Non-flammable
U.S. Permissible
exposure limit (PEL)
none[8]
Related compounds
Other anions Ammonium fluoride
Ammonium bromide
Ammonium iodide
Other cations Sodium chloride
Potassium chloride
Hydroxylammonium chloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☑Y verify (what is ☑Y☒N ?)
Infobox references

Ammonium chloride is a chemical compound composed of ammonium and chloride ions. It is a colorless crystalline compound. It is used in soldering. It is also used as an electrolyte in the Leclanche cell, a type of primary cell. Ammonium chloride can be deprotonated by strong bases such as sodium hydroxide to produce ammonia gas.It is sublime compound.

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 4.46. ISBN 1439855110.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 ammonium chloride. Chemister.ru (2007-03-19). Retrieved on 2018-01-23.
  3. Seidell, Atherton; Linke, William F. (1919). Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (2nd ed.). D. Van Nostrand Company.
    Results here are multiplied by water's density at temperature of solution for unit conversion.
  4. "Solubility Products of Selected Compounds". Salt Lake Metals. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Pradyot, Patnaik (2003). Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ISBN 978-0-07-049439-8.
  6. Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 4.131. ISBN 1439855110.
  7. Breñosa, A.G; Rodríguez, F; Moreno, M (1993). "Phase transition temperatures and thermal hysteresis in NH4Cl1−xBrx (x≤0.05) crystals determined through charge transfer spectra of Cu2+(II) centres". Solid State Communications 85 (2): 135. doi:10.1016/0038-1098(93)90362-Q. 
  8. "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0029". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).