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Full structural formula of ethanol
Skeletal formula of ethanol
Ball-and-stick model of ethanol
Space-filling model of ethanol
Pronunciation /ˈɛθənɒl/
Systematic IUPAC name
Other names
Absolute alcohol
cologne spirit
drinking alcohol
ethylic alcohol
ethyl alcohol
ethyl hydrate
ethyl hydroxide
grain alcohol
3D model (JSmol)
3DMet {{{value}}}
Beilstein Reference 1718733
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.526
E number E1510 (additional chemicals)
Gmelin Reference 787
PubChem {{{value}}}
UN number UN 1170
SMILES {{{value}}}
Molar mass 46.07 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Density 0.7893 g/cm3 (at 20 °C)[2]
Melting point −114.14 ± 0.03[2] °C (−173.45 ± 0.05 °F; 159.01 ± 0.03 K)
Boiling point 78.24 ± 0.09[2] °C (172.83 ± 0.16 °F; 351.39 ± 0.09 K)
log P −0.18
Vapor pressure 5.95 kPa (at 20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 15.9 (H2O), 29.8 (DMSO)[3][4]
−33.60·10−6 cm3/mol
Viscosity 1.2 mPa·s (at 20 °C), 1.074 mPa·s (at 25 °C)[5]
1.69 D[6]
NFPA 704

NFPA 704.svg

Flash point 14 °C (Absolute)
U.S. Permissible
exposure limit (PEL)
TWA 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3) [7]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references
A bottle of Ethanol

Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol or just alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound. Its chemical formula is C2H5OH, also written as C2H6O. It is the active part of alcoholic drinks, which are drunk in most cultures worldwide. It is also used as a solvent because it can dissolve many other chemicals and is not very toxic. Yeast makes most of the ethanol that people use.

Ethanol fuel[change | change source]

Ethanol fuel can be used instead of gasoline in cars and other engines. Engines can use pure ethanol or ethanol mixed with gasoline.

In Brazil, ethanol fuel made from sugar cane provides 18 percent of the country's fuel for cars. Because of this, Brazil does not have to buy oil from other countries.[8] To do this, Brazil cut down much of the rain forests to grow more sugar cane, which is then fermented into Ethanol.

Most cars in the U.S. can run on fuels that have of up to 10% ethanol in them. Car makers like Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and GM also make vehicles specifically designed to run on higher ethanol blends. Some of their engines can run on up to 85% ethanol (E85). By mid-2006, there were about six million E85-compatible vehicles on U.S. roads.[9]

References[change | change source]

  1. "Ethanol – Compound Summary". The PubChem Project. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 3.246. ISBN 1439855110.
  3. Ballinger P, Long FA (1960). "Acid Ionization Constants of Alcohols. II. Acidities of Some Substituted Methanols and Related Compounds1,2". Journal of the American Chemical Society 82 (4): 795–798. doi:10.1021/ja01489a008. 
  4. Arnett EM, Venkatasubramaniam KG (1983). "Thermochemical acidities in three superbase systems". J. Org. Chem. 48 (10): 1569–1578. doi:10.1021/jo00158a001. 
  5. Lide DR, ed. (2012). [Ethanol at Google Books CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics] Check |url= value (help) (92 ed.). Boca Raton, FL.: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis. pp. 6–232.
  6. Lide DR, ed. (2008). [Ethanol at Google Books CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics] Check |url= value (help) (89 ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 9–55.
  7. "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0262". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  8. America and Brazil Intersect on Ethanol
  9. American energy: The renewable path to energy security

Other websites[change | change source]