|Colorless gas with purple glow in its plasma state
Spectral lines of hydrogen
|Name, symbol, number||hydrogen, H, 1|
|Group, period, block||1, 1, s|
|Standard atomic weight||1.00794(7) g/mol|
|Electrons per shell||1 (Image)|
|Density||(0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
|Liquid density at m.p.||0.07 (0.0763 solid) g/cm3|
|Liquid density at b.p.||0.07099 g/cm3|
|Melting point||14.01 K, -259.14 °C, -434.45 °F|
|Boiling point||20.28 K, -252.87 °C, -423.17 °F|
|Triple point||13.8033 K (-259°C), 7.042 kPa|
|Critical point||32.97 K, 1.293 MPa|
|Heat of fusion||(H2) 0.117 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||(H2) 0.904 kJ/mol|
|Specific heat capacity||(25 °C) (H2) 28.836 J/(mol·K)|
|Oxidation states||1, -1
|Electronegativity||2.20 (Pauling scale)|
|Ionization energies||1st: 1312.0 kJ/mol|
|Covalent radius||31±5 pm|
|Van der Waals radius||120 pm|
|Thermal conductivity||(300 K) 0.1805 W/(m·K)|
|Speed of sound||(gas, 27 °C) 1310 m/s|
|CAS registry number||1333-74-0|
|Most stable isotopes|
|Main article: Isotopes of hydrogen|
Hydrogen is a chemical element. Its atomic number is 1, which makes it the simplest, known element in the entire universe. Hydrogen is the true primordial substance, the first atom produced after the big bang. All chemical elements were formed from hydrogen by the processes of nuclear fusion.
Hydrogen in nature[change | change source]
In its pure form on Earth, hydrogen is usually a gas. Hydrogen is also one of the parts that make up a water molecule. Hydrogen is important because it is the fuel that powers the Sun and other stars. Hydrogen makes up about 75% of the entire universe. Hydrogen's symbol on the Periodic Table of Elements is H.
Pure hydrogen is normally made of two hydrogen atoms connected together. Scientists call these diatomic molecules. Hydrogen will have a chemical reaction when mixed with most other elements. It has no color or smell.
Pure hydrogen is very uncommon in the Earth's atmosphere. In nature, it is usually in water. Hydrogen is also in all living things, as a part of the organic compounds that living things are made of. In addition, hydrogen atoms can combine with carbon atoms to form hydrocarbons. Petroleum and other fossil fuels are made of these hydrocarbons and commonly used to create energy for human use.
Hydrogen has two different isotopes, called deuterium and tritium. Like regular hydrogen, they both have only one proton and one electron, but deuterium also has one neutron and tritium has two. These other types of hydrogen are important in nuclear energy and organic chemistry reactions.
Some other facts about hydrogen:
- It is a gas at room temperature
- It acts like a metal when it is solid.
- It is the lightest element in the Universe.
- It is the most common element in the Universe.
- It burns or explodes when it touches a flame.
History of Hydrogen[change | change source]
Hydrogen was discovered in 1671 by Robert Boyle even though many people think it was discovered by Henry Cavendish in 1776.
The word[change | change source]
Uses of Hydrogen[change | change source]
The main uses of hydrogen are in the petroleum industry and in making ammonia by the Haber process. Some is used elsewhere in the chemical industry. A little of it is used as fuel, for example in rockets for spacecraft. Most of the hydrogen that people use comes from a chemical reaction between natural gas and steam.
Nuclear fusion[change | change source]
Nuclear fusion is a very powerful source of energy. It relies on forcing atoms together to make helium and energy, exactly as happens in a star like the Sun, or in a hydrogen bomb. This needs a large amount of energy to get started, and is not easy to do yet. A big advantage over nuclear fission, which is used in today's nuclear power stations, is that it makes less nuclear waste and does not use a toxic and rare fuel like uranium. More than 600 million tons of hydrogen undergo fusion every second on the Sun.
Burning Hydrogen[change | change source]
The electrolysis of water easily breaks water into hydrogen and oxygen, using a large amount of electricity. Burning hydrogen combines with oxygen molecules to make steam (pure water vapor). A fuel cell combines hydrogen with an oxygen molecule, releasing an electron as electricity. For these reasons, many people believe hydrogen power will eventually replace technologies such as diesel-electric engines and biodiesel fuel.
Some people think it is not correct to see hydrogen as a fuel if it is used in a fuel cell. Because it is not found naturally on Earth, it is more of a replacement for the power grid. Such a grid and infrastructure with new vehicles might be first made in Iceland, a country that has much free geothermal energy and is quite small. Because it imports all fossil fuel, it would help Iceland to completely stop using it. The huge advantage of hydrogen is that when burnt in an engine or in a fuel cell, there is no pollution. Only a small amount of water forms.
References[change | change source]
- Simpson, J.A.; Weiner, E.S.C. (1989). "Hydrogen". Oxford English Dictionary. 7 (2nd ed.). Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-861219-2.
- Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils; Holleman, Arnold Frederick (2001). Inorganic chemistry. Academic Press. p. 240. ISBN 0123526515. http://books.google.com/books?id=vEwj1WZKThEC&pg=PA240.
- "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (81st ed.). CRC Press. http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf.
- EIA.doe.gov - What is Hydrogen?
- Carroll, Bradley W. & Ostlie, Dale A. 2006. An introduction to modern astrophysics. 2nd ed, Addison-Wesley, San Francisco. ISBN 0-8053-0402-9
- "The magic of syngas". chemrec.se. 2012 [last update]. http://www.chemrec.se/Syngas_the_link_from_feedstock_to_synthetic_product.aspx. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
- "Hydrogen in the Universe". imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov. 2012 [last update]. http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/971113i.html. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
- "What is Fusion?". iter.org. ITER Organization. 2012 [last update]. http://www.iter.org/sci/whatisfusion. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
- "NASA's Cosmicopia". NASA. http://helios.gsfc.nasa.gov/qa_sun.html. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
Other websites[change | change source]
- Hydrogen -Citizendium