Vanadium is often found in aquatic forms of life. The human body may need a little bit of vanadium, but scientists are not really sure.
Vanadium can react with a variety of other elements, and the chemical compounds it forms often have beautiful colors.
The cosmic abundance of vanadium in the universe is 0.0001%, making the element nearly as common as copper or zinc. Vanadium is detected by spectroscopy in light from the Sun, and sometimes in light from other stars.
Earth's crust[change | change source]
Vanadium is the 22nd most abundant element in the Earth's crust. Metallic vanadium is rare in nature. However, vanadium compounds occur naturally in about 65 different minerals. Much of the world's vanadium production comes from vanadium-bearing magnetite found in ultramafic gabbro rocks. Vanadium is mined mostly in South Africa, north-western China, and eastern Russia. In 2013 these three countries mined more than 97% of the 79,000 tonnes of produced vanadium.
References[change | change source]
- Rehder, Dieter 2008. Bioinorganic vanadium chemistry (1st ed.). Hamburg, Germany: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp. 5 & 9–10. doi:10.1002/9780470994429. ISBN 9780470065099.
- Cowley C.R. et al 1978. "Vanadium abundances in early A stars". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 90: 536. doi:10.1086/130379.
- Ostrooumov M. and Taran Y. 2015. Discovery of native vanadium, a new mineral from the Colima Volcano, State of Colima (Mexico). Revista de la Sociedad Española de Mineralogía 20, 109-110
- "Vanadium: Vanadium mineral information and data". Mindat.org. http://www.mindat.org/min-43604.html. Retrieved 2016-03-02.
- Magyar, Michael J.. "Mineral Commodity Summaries 2015: Vanadium". United States Geological Survey. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/vanadium/mcs-2015-vanad.pdf. Retrieved 3 June 2015.