Neon

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Neon,  10Ne
Neon discharge tube.jpg
General properties
Appearancecolorless gas exhibiting an orange-red glow when placed in an electric field
Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard)20.1797(6)[1]
Neon in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
He

Ne

Ar
fluorineneonsodium
Atomic number (Z)10
Groupgroup 18 (noble gases)
Periodperiod 2
Blockp-block
Element category  noble gas
Electron configuration[He] 2s2 2p6
Electrons per shell
2, 8
Physical properties
Phase at STPgas
Melting point24.56 K ​(−248.59 °C, ​−415.46 °F)
Boiling point27.104 K ​(−246.046 °C, ​−410.883 °F)
Density (at STP)0.9002 g/L
when liquid (at b.p.)1.207 g/cm3[2]
Triple point24.556 K, ​43.37 kPa[3][4]
Critical point44.4918 K, 2.7686 MPa[4]
Heat of fusion0.335 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization1.71 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity20.79[5] J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 12 13 15 18 21 27
Atomic properties
Oxidation states0
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 2080.7 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 3952.3 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 6122 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Covalent radius58 pm
Van der Waals radius154 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of neon
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for neon
Speed of sound435 m/s (gas, at 0 °C)
Thermal conductivity49.1×10−3 W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[6]
Magnetic susceptibility−6.74·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[7]
Bulk modulus654 GPa
CAS Number7440-01-9
History
PredictionWilliam Ramsay (1897)
Discovery and first isolationWilliam Ramsay & Morris Travers[8][9] (1898)
Main isotopes of neon
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
20Ne 90.48% stable
21Ne 0.27% stable
22Ne 9.25% stable
| references
Neon

Neon is a noble gas. It is chemical element 10 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Ne.

The word "neon" comes from the Greek word meaning "new". It was discovered by William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers in 1898.

Neon does not react with other elements, so it is found by itself. There is not much neon in the air, and it is clear, so we do not see it.

Neon gas is used in gas discharge lamps. When electricity goes through the neon, it lights up red. Due to this quality, it is used in signs. Similar signs use other gases to make other colors, but they are also often called "neon signs".

Neon is also a term referring to a type of color that is very bright, such as lime green.

No true chemical compounds including the neutral compounds of neon are known. Where there is the helium compound HHeF, which might be stable, the analogous compound with Neon is not.[10]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B.; Berglund, M.; Brand, W.A.; De Bièvre, P.; Gröning, M.; Holden, N.E.; Irrgeher, J. et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Hammond, C. R. (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition (PDF). CRC press. p. 19. ISBN 0849304814.
  3. Preston-Thomas, H. (1990). "The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)". Metrologia 27: 3–10. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/27/1/002. http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/its-90.html. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 4.122. ISBN 1439855110.
  5. Shuen-Chen Hwang, Robert D. Lein, Daniel A. Morgan (2005). "Noble Gases". Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley. pp. 343–383. doi:10.1002/0471238961.0701190508230114.a01.
  6. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
  7. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.
  8. Ramsay, William; Travers, Morris W. (1898). "On the Companions of Argon". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 63 (1): 437–440. doi:10.1098/rspl.1898.0057. 
  9. "Neon: History". Softciências. Retrieved 2007-02-27.
  10. Errol G. Lewars: Modeling Marvels: Computational Anticipation of Novel Molecules. Springer Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4020-6972-7, S. 69–80.