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Flerovium, 114Fl
Mass number[289] (unconfirmed: 290)
Flerovium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Atomic number (Z)114
Groupgroup 14 (carbon group)
Periodperiod 7
Block  p-block
Element categories, but probably a post-transition metal
Electron configuration[Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (predicted)[3] (predicted)
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 4 (predicted)
Physical properties
Phase at STPgas (predicted)[3]
Boiling point~ 210 K ​(~ −60 °C, ​~ −80 °F) [4][5]
Density when liquid (at m.p.)14 g/cm3 (predicted)[6]
Heat of vaporization38 kJ/mol (predicted)[6]
Atomic properties
Oxidation states(0), (+1), (+2), (+4), (+6) (predicted)[3][6][7]
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 832.2 kJ/mol (predicted)[8]
  • 2nd: 1600 kJ/mol (predicted)[6]
  • 3rd: 3370 kJ/mol (predicted)[6]
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 180 pm (predicted)[3][6]
Covalent radius171–177 pm (extrapolated)[9]
Other properties
Natural occurrencesynthetic
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centred cubic crystal structure for flerovium

CAS Number54085-16-4
Namingafter Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (itself named after Georgy Flyorov)[11]
DiscoveryJoint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (1999)
Main isotopes of flerovium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
284Fl[12][13] syn 2.5 ms SF
285Fl[14] syn 0.10 s α 281Cn
286Fl syn 0.12 s 40% α 282Cn
60% SF
287Fl[15] syn 0.48 s α 283Cn
EC? 287Nh
288Fl syn 0.66 s α 284Cn
289Fl syn 1.9 s α 285Cn
290Fl[16][17] syn 19 s? EC 290Nh
α 286Cn
Category Category: Flerovium
| references

Flerovium is a chemical element. It is also named eka-lead. It has the symbol Fl. It has the atomic number 114. It is a superheavy element. Flerovium is radioactive.

Flerovium does not exist in nature. It has to be made. It is a synthetic element. It is made from a nuclear reaction between plutonium and calcium. The reaction that happens is a fusion reaction.

History[change | change source]

The discovery of Flerovium in December 1998 was reported in January 1999 by scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia.[18] The same team of scientists made another isotope of Fl three months later[19] and made it again in 2004 and 2006.

In 2004 in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research checked it was made by another method. They found the final products of radioactive decay.

After its discovery, the "new" element was named ununquadium. The named changed on May 30th, 2012 to "flerovium". The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry named it so.[20]

Chemical properties[change | change source]

Not enough Flerovium has been made to measure its physical or chemical properties. It is thought that it would be a soft, dense metal that changes colour in air. It may have a low melting point of about 200 °C.

Making it[change | change source]

Flerovium can be made by bombarding a plutonium-244 target with calcium-48 as a beam of ions.

298Fl - An undiscovered neutron-rich nucleus[change | change source]

According to the nuclear shell model, the undiscovered neutron-rich nucleus 298Fl may be a doubly magic nucleus, atop the shell closure at N=184.[21] It is predicted that this atom, amid the closed nuclear shells, expected to have longer half-lives for alpha decay and spontaneous fission. However using the fusion-evaporation method to produce this nuclide is impractical, since more neutron-rich starting materials with low proton numbers are unstable due to beta decay.

Estimates for half-lives for this atom range from a few minutes to several billion years.[source?]

References[change | change source]

  1. "Flerovium and Livermorium". Periodic Table of Videos. The University of Nottingham. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
  2. "Flerovium". Lexico. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria (2006). "Transactinides and the future elements". In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean (eds.). The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4020-3555-5.
  4. Oganessian, Yu. Ts. (27 January 2017). "Discovering Superheavy Elements". Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  5. Seaborg, G. T. "Transuranium element". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Fricke, Burkhard (1975). "Superheavy elements: a prediction of their chemical and physical properties". Recent Impact of Physics on Inorganic Chemistry. Structure and Bonding. 21: 89–144. doi:10.1007/BFb0116498. ISBN 978-3-540-07109-9. Retrieved 4 October 2013. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "BFricke" defined multiple times with different content
  7. Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Seth, Michael (2002). "Relativistic Quantum Chemistry of the Superheavy Elements. Closed-Shell Element 114 as a Case Study" (PDF). Journal of Nuclear and Radiochemical Sciences. 3 (1): 133–136. doi:10.14494/jnrs2000.3.133. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
  8. Pershina, Valeria. "Theoretical Chemistry of the Heaviest Elements". In Schädel, Matthias; Shaughnessy, Dawn (eds.). The Chemistry of Superheavy Elements (2nd ed.). Springer Science & Business Media. p. 154. ISBN 9783642374661.
  9. Bonchev, Danail; Kamenska, Verginia (1981). "Predicting the Properties of the 113–120 Transactinide Elements". Journal of Physical Chemistry. American Chemical Society. 85 (9): 1177–1186. doi:10.1021/j150609a021.
  10. Maiz Hadj Ahmed, H.; Zaoui, A.; Ferhat, M. (2017). "Revisiting the ground state phase stability of super-heavy element Flerovium". Cogent Physics. 4 (1). doi:10.1080/23311940.2017.1380454. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  11. IUPAC (30 May 2012). "Element 114 is Named Flerovium and Element 116 is Named Livermorium". Press release. http://www.iupac.org/news/news-detail/article/element-114-is-named-flerovium-and-element-116-is-named-livermorium.html. 
  12. Utyonkov, V.K. | display-authors = etal (2015) Synthesis of superheavy nuclei at limits of stability: 239,240Pu + 48Ca and 249–251Cf + 48Ca reactions. Super Heavy Nuclei International Symposium, Texas A & M University, College Station TX, USA, March 31 – April 02, 2015
  13. Utyonkov, V. K.; Brewer, N. T.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Abdullin, F. Sh.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Itkis, M. G.; Miernik, K.; Polyakov, A. N.; Roberto, J. B.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Shumeiko, M. V.; Tsyganov, Yu. S.; Voinov, A. A.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Sabel'nikov, A. V.; Vostokin, G. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Stoyer, M. A.; Strauss, S. Y. (15 September 2015). "Experiments on the synthesis of superheavy nuclei 284Fl and 285Fl in the 239,240Pu + 48Ca reactions". Physical Review C. 92 (3): 034609. Bibcode:2015PhRvC..92c4609U. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.92.034609.
  14. Utyonkov, V. K.; Brewer, N. T.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Abdullin, F. Sh.; Dimitriev, S. N.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Itkis, M. G.; Miernik, K.; Polyakov, A. N.; Roberto, J. B.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Shumeiko, M. V.; Tsyganov, Yu. S.; Voinov, A. A.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Karpov, A. V.; Popeko, A. G.; Sabel'nikov, A. V.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Vostokin, G. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Kovrinzhykh, N. D.; Schlattauer, L.; Stoyer, M. A.; Gan, Z.; Huang, W. X.; Ma, L. (30 January 2018). "Neutron-deficient superheavy nuclei obtained in the 240Pu+48Ca reaction". Physical Review C. 97 (14320): 1–10. Bibcode:2018PhRvC..97a4320U. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.97.014320.
  15. (2016) "Remarks on the Fission Barriers of SHN and Search for Element 120" in Exotic Nuclei.  : 155–164. 
  16. Hofmann, S.; Heinz, S.; Mann, R.; Maurer, J.; Münzenberg, G.; Antalic, S.; Barth, W.; Burkhard, H. G.; Dahl, L.; Eberhardt, K.; Grzywacz, R.; Hamilton, J. H.; Henderson, R. A.; Kenneally, J. M.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lang, R.; Lommel, B.; Miernik, K.; Miller, D.; Moody, K. J.; Morita, K.; Nishio, K.; Popeko, A. G.; Roberto, J. B.; Runke, J.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Saro, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schött, H. J.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Thörle-Popiesch, P.; Tinschert, K.; Trautmann, N.; Uusitalo, J.; Yeremin, A. V. (2016). "Review of even element super-heavy nuclei and search for element 120". The European Physics Journal A. 2016 (52): 180. Bibcode:2016EPJA...52..180H. doi:10.1140/epja/i2016-16180-4.
  17. Kaji, Daiya; Morita, Kosuke; Morimoto, Kouji; Haba, Hiromitsu; Asai, Masato; Fujita, Kunihiro; Gan, Zaiguo; Geissel, Hans; Hasebe, Hiroo; Hofmann, Sigurd; Huang, MingHui; Komori, Yukiko; Ma, Long; Maurer, Joachim; Murakami, Masashi; Takeyama, Mirei; Tokanai, Fuyuki; Tanaka, Taiki; Wakabayashi, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Yamaki, Sayaka; Yoshida, Atsushi (2017). "Study of the Reaction 48Ca + 248Cm → 296Lv* at RIKEN-GARIS". Journal of the Physical Society of Japan. 86 (3): 034201–1–7. Bibcode:2017JPSJ...86c4201K. doi:10.7566/JPSJ.86.034201.
  18. Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; et al. (October 1999). "Synthesis of Superheavy Nuclei in the 48Ca + 244Pu Reaction". Physical Review Letters. 83: 3154. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.3154.
  19. Oganessian; et al. (July 1999). "Synthesis of nuclei of the superheavy element 114 in reactions induced by 48Ca". Nature. 400: 242. doi:10.1038/22281.
  20. Element 114 is Named Flerovium and Element 116 is Named Livermorium
  21. Karpov, A. V.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Palenzuela, Y. M.; et al. (2012). "Decay properties and stability of the heaviest elements" (PDF). International Journal of Modern Physics E. 21 (2): 1250013-1–1250013-20. Bibcode:2012IJMPE..2150013K. doi:10.1142/S0218301312500139.

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