Chlorine

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Chlorine,  17Cl
A glass container filled with chlorine gas
General properties
Pronunciation/ˈklɔːrn, -n/ (KLOHR-een, --eyen)
Appearancepale yellow-green gas
Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard)[35.44635.457] conventional: 35.45
Chlorine in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
F

Cl

Br
sulfurchlorineargon
Atomic number (Z)17
Groupgroup 17 (halogens)
Periodperiod 3
Blockp-block
Element category  reactive nonmetal
Electron configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p5
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 7
Physical properties
Phase at STPgas
Melting point171.6 K ​(−101.5 °C, ​−150.7 °F)
Boiling point239.11 K ​(−34.04 °C, ​−29.27 °F)
Density (at STP)3.2 g/L
when liquid (at b.p.)1.5625 g/cm3[1]
Critical point416.9 K, 7.991 MPa
Heat of fusion(Cl2) 6.406 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization(Cl2) 20.41 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity(Cl2)
33.949 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 128 139 153 170 197 239
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−1, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, +7 (a strongly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 3.16
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 1251.2 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2298 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3822 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Covalent radius102±4 pm
Van der Waals radius175 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of chlorine
Other properties
Crystal structureorthorhombic
Orthorhombic crystal structure for chlorine
Speed of sound206 m/s (gas, at 0 °C)
Thermal conductivity8.9×103 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity>10 Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[2]
Magnetic susceptibility−40.5·10−6 cm3/mol[3]
CAS Number(Cl2) 7782-50-5
History
Discovery and first isolationCarl Wilhelm Scheele (1774)
Recognized as an element byHumphry Davy (1808)
Main isotopes of chlorine
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
35Cl 76% stable
36Cl trace 3.01×105 y β 36Ar
ε 36S
37Cl 24% stable
| references
Chlorine gas in a tube

Chlorine (chemical symbol Cl) is a chemical element. Its atomic number (which is the number of protons in it) is 17, and its atomic mass is 35.45. It is part of the 7th column (halogens) on the periodic table of elements.

Properties[change | change source]

Physical properties[change | change source]

Chlorine is a very irritating and greenish-yellow gas. It has a strong smell like bleach. It is toxic. It can be made into a liquid when cooled. It is heavier than air.

Chemical properties[change | change source]

Chlorine is highly reactive. It is more reactive than bromine but less reactive than fluorine. It reacts with most things to make chlorides. It can even burn things instead of oxygen. It dissolves in water to make a mixture of hypochlorous acid and hydrochloric acid. The more acidic it is, the more chlorine is made; the more basic it is, the more hypochlorous acid (normally turned into hypochlorite) and hydrochloric acid (normally turned into chlorides) are there. Chlorine reacts with bromides and iodides to make bromine and iodine.

Chlorine compounds[change | change source]

Chlorine exists in several oxidation states: -1, +1, +3, +4, +5, and +7. The -1 state is most often in chloride. Chlorides are not reactive. Compounds containing chlorine in its +1 oxidation state are hypochlorites. Only one is common. They are a strong oxidizing agent, as are all + oxidation state compounds. +3 is in chlorites. +4 is in chlorine dioxide, a common chlorine compound that is not a chloride. +5 is in chlorates. +7 is in perchlorates. Hypochlorites are most reactive, while perchlorates are the least reactive.

Many organic compounds have chlorine in them. Freon has chlorine in it. PVC (Poly-vinyl chloride), a common plastic, has chlorine in it.

Chlorine oxides can be made, but most of them are very reactive and unstable.

Occurrence[change | change source]

Chlorine is not found as an element. Sodium chloride is the most common chlorine ore. It is in the ocean (sea salt) and in the ground (rock salt). There are some organic compounds that have chlorine in them, too.

Preparation[change | change source]

It is made by electrolysis (the passing of electricity through a solution to make chemical reactions happen) of sodium chloride. This is known as the chloralkali process. It can also be made by reacting hydrogen chloride with oxygen and a catalyst. It can be made in the laboratory by reacting manganese dioxide with hydrochloric acid. It is made when sodium hypochlorite reacts with hydrochloric acid. This is a dangerous reaction that can happen without anyone knowing.

Uses[change | change source]

Chlorine is widely used to purify water (usually in a swimming pool), as a disinfectant and bleach, and in the making of many important compounds including chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. It was used as a poison gas in some wars.

History[change | change source]

It was discovered in 1774 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele who thought it had oxygen in it. Chlorine was named in 1810 by Humphry Davy who insisted it was an element. The US made all water chlorinated (added chlorine to water) by 1918.

Safety[change | change source]

It is poisonous in large amounts and can damage skin. When it is inhaled (breathed in), it irritates the lungs, eyes, and skin badly. It can cause fire with some things because it is very reactive. It is heavier than air, so it can fill up enclosed spaces.

Related pages[change | change source]

Sources[change | change source]

  1. Chlorine, Gas Encyclopaedia, Air Liquide
  2. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.