A car is a road vehicle used to carry passengers. Cars usually have four wheels and an internal combustion engine. Another name is automobile from Greek "auto" and French "mobile". This name means "self-moving", as cars do not need horses or other external sources of power to move.
Technology[change | change source]
Some small "city" cars carry only two to four people, and have little luggage space. Other types are able to carry many passengers or heavy loads. For example, family station wagons or estate cars carry from 5 to 9 people, or fewer people with lots of luggage. A van or pickup truck is a car-like vehicle made for carrying medium sized loads; for example, goods for delivery or plumber's and builder's tools and materials. Heavy lorries are used to carry deliveries and heavy loads.
In order for a car to work, it must have fuel. The most common fuel is petrol, which is called gasoline in America. Some cars burn diesel or ethanol. A few can run on several different fuels. Alternative fuel vehicles use less common fuels like natural gas, wood gas or electricity. Some car-making companies have also tried building vehicles that run using hydrogen fuel cells, which do not give out any polluting exhaust gases (but most of the hydrogen that peopl YBe use comes from burning fossil fuels). In some countries, such as Brazil and Sweden, a mixture of ethanol and petrol, called gasohol in Brazil and E-85 in Sweden, is used as automobile fuel.
History[change | change source]
The earliest automobiles recorded were actually steam engines attached to wagons in the late 18th century. The steam engines were heavy and therefore the wagon was slow and hard to control. Better and faster steam cars became common late in the 19th century.
Some cars in the early 20th century were powered by electricity. They were slow and heavy and went out of use until the idea came back later in the century.
The internal combustion engine changed the way automobiles were powered. The engine used either gasoline, diesel, or kerosene to work. When the gas is exploded in a cylinder it pushes the piston down and turns the wheel.
Although many people tried to make a good car that would work well and sell well, people say that Karl Benz invented the modern automobile. He used a four-stroke type of internal combustion engine to power his "Motorwagen". He began to make many cars in a factory and sell them in 1888.
In North America, the first modern car was made by the Duryea Brothers in Springfield, Massachusetts. The Duryea Brothers' car also won the first-ever car race in 1895, competing against cars made by Benz. The race was in Chicago, Illinois, and 53 miles long. Duryea then began making the first automobiles for everyday people to use in 1896. That year they made 13 cars by hand in Springfield, Massachusetts.
Benz may have invented the first modern car, and Duryea the first car to sell, but Henry Ford sold the most cars to the most people. In 1910 he began making and selling his Model T, which was a huge success. Many people could afford this car, not just the rich, because Ford used mass production. This meant he made a great many Model Ts in a short time in a factory. People say that the Model T is the car that "put America on wheels". The Model T was the most popular car of the time because it was cheap but it was still a good quality car that ordinary people could own.
Since then, many different kinds of cars have been designed and built, from minivans to sports cars.
In the 1950s the United States made and used more cars than all the rest of the world. The world caught up, and fifty years later China became the largest maker and user.
Advantages[change | change source]
Model Answer 1:
In our lives, we travel from one place to another for a great variety of reasons and while traveling we greatly depend on cars, whether it is a private car or a public bus. The number of car-owners increasing everyday because every person expects the freedom to travel and comfort while traveling. And that is why most of us want to own a car. However owning a car have many advantages and disadvantages as well.
The main advantage of owning a car is it gives the freedom to travel. If you have a car then you don't need to be limited to fixed routes and timetables. Moreover, a car-owner can take is/her family members with him/her and other necessary goods whenever he/she wish which might have been impossible otherwise. In addition personal cars give comfort while traveling on the contrary to the public buses which are so crowded and disgusting. You can read books, listen to music or even can play with kids while you are in your own car but those all seems to be impossible in a public transport. On the contrary, owning a car is very expensive. The price of the car, the cost of the tax, insurance cost, fuel-cost, driver' salary, car repairing etc. all must be considered before buying a car and that is why it is out of reach of the middle class people.
Moreover, private cars can not carry many passengers at a time yet occupy spaces in the street. As the number of car is increasing in the road so does the traffic jam. Perhaps the major disadvantage of cars in general is the huge damage they do to the human health and to the environment. More cars mean more pollution. The environment pollution is a serious issue today and in any cost we must reduce the amount of pollution. And if we consider it then owning a car is never a good idea.
To sum up, having a car gives someone freedom but if public transportation system is easily accessible, safe and efficient, then the idea of buying and owning a car should be abandoned.
Disadvantages[change | change source]
Buying and running a car needs a lot of money, even more for a good quality one that is not too old. There are a lot of things to pay for - the car itself, fuel, parts (for example, tires/tyres), maintenance, repairs, insurance to cover the cost of crashes or theft, parking charges and toll roads and any tax or licensing fees charged by government.
If two cars crash they can hurt the people inside or around them. When too many cars try to go the same way, traffic congestion slows them all. They can cause air pollution if too many are used in a small area like a city, and the combined pollution of the world's cars is thought to be partly to blame for climate change. Many places where people live close together have public transportation (or mass transit) such as buses, trains, trams and subways. These can help people go more quickly and cheaply than by car when traffic jams are a problem. Some of these problems can be fixed, for example, by carpooling, which is putting many people together in one car.
Traffic congestion and accidents can be dangerous to other road users, for example people riding bicycles or walking, especially in an old town built when cars were few. Some 20th century towns are designed for cars as the main transport, but this can cause other problems. These include even more pollution and traffic, as everyone has to drive. Communities are divided up and separated with roads. People walking are in danger by expressways with too few foot bridges, small road bridges or other crossings. Designers now understand these problems and try to build more balanced systems.
References[change | change source]
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