Antisocial personality disorder
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Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a personality disorder in which a person fails to conform with socially accepted behavior. People with this disorder often disregard social norms or the rights of other people. Other names for the condition are sociopathy and dissocial personality disorder (DPD). However, because of the many definitions of sociopathy, that word is no longer used in a medical context.
The ASPD pattern begins in childhood or adolescence and continues into adulthood. People with ASPD have no conscience or sense of morality, although the large majority know right from wrong. Those with ASPD often commit crimes, have legal problems, and show behavior that is aggressive and, in the large majority of cases, impulsive, reckless and destructive. About three percent of men and one percent of women have ASPD.
DSM-IV criteria[change | change source]
According to the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (the DSM-IV), a person has ASPD if they fit the following requirements:
A. Since age 15, the person has shown a pattern of not caring about and violating others' rights. This pattern must be pervasive, meaning that the person habitually acts this way in different settings. This pattern is shown by at least three of the following actions:
- The person does not obey the law, and repeatedly does things for which he or she could be arrested
- The person often deliberately misleads and deceives others. He or she may do this by lying repeatedly, using aliases (false names), or conning other people (either for money or enjoyment).
- The person is impulsive or does not plan ahead.
- The person becomes irritated or angry easily and is aggressive. He or she repeatedly gets into physical fights or assaults others.
- The person shows no concern for other people's safety or his/her own safety.
- The person is consistently irresponsible. He or she may not try to keep a job or honor financial obligations, like bills and debts.
- The person shows no remorse for hurting others; he or she hurts, steals from, or treats others badly, without remorse.
B. To be diagnosed with ASPD, the person must be at least 18 years old.
C. By age 15, he or she seemed to exhibit conduct disorder.
ASPD vs. psychopathy[change | change source]
ASPD is not the same as psychopathy. The two are similar; people with both conditions may show similar behaviors. However, they are diagnosed differently. Using the DSM criteria, a diagnosis of ASPD is based on a person's behaviors. No official, agreed-upon definition or set of diagnostic criteria exists for psychopathy, but most tools that measure psychopathy focus on personality characteristics as well as behaviors.
Most people who score highly on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R), the most popular measure of psychopathy, also qualify for ASPD. However, people with ASPD do not routinely score high on the PCL-R. This suggests that most psychopaths qualify for ASPD, but most people with ASPD do not qualify as psychopaths. The diagnosis of ASPD covers most psychopaths, as well as many more people who are not psychopaths. The diagnosis of ASPD covers two to three times as many prisoners as the diagnosis of psychopathy does.
Subtypes[change | change source]
Depending on the behaviour, different ASPD subtypes have been identified:
- Intrumentalized type: People classified in this subtype care about power, material goods and money. They are very self-confident and lack feelings such as remorse, empathy or fear. They do not want to change their behaviour. This type is very similar to what used to be called "psychopathy."
- Impulsive type: These people are very impulsive, have difficulty controlling their actions, and are quick to judge other people's actions as negative. In most cases, the person suffering will not notice this inability. These people are also very emotional; emotions such as fear and anger are common. They are easily frustrated and quickly show aggressive behaviour. These people do not look for material gain.
- Fearful type: These people often suffer from depression, and are shy or fearful. When provoked, their level of violent behaviour is excessive, and often greater than that of the other types. Outside these eruptions they are in control, and hardly get noticed. Very often, this group has lived through traumatic events.
Mixed types also occur. There is a debate on the subtypes.
References[change | change source]
- Antisocial personality disorder – Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) American Psychiatric Association (2000) pp. 645–650
- Schacter, Daniel L., Daniel T. Gilbert, and Daniel M. Wegner. Psychology. Worth Publishers, 2010. Print.
- Patrick, Christopher J (Editor). (2005) Handbook of Psychopathy. Guilford Press. Page 61.