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Relief at Naqsh-e Rostam, on the tomb of Xerxes I, showing an Arachosian soldier of the Achaemenid army (c. 470 BCE).

Arachosia (/ærəˈksiə/; Greek: Ἀραχωσία Arachōsíā), or Harauvatis, was an ancient province (satrapy) of the eastern Achaemenid empire. The name originates from Old Persian. Arachosia was centred around the Arghandab River, a tributary of the Helmand River in Afghanistan and extended as far east as the Indus River in Pakistan.[1][2]

In Greek, the satrapy's name was derived from Arachōtós, the Greek-language name for the Arghandab River. Around 330 BCE, Alexander the Great commissioned the building of Alexandria Arachosia as Arachosia's new capital city under the Macedonian Empire. It was built on top of an earlier Persian military fortress after Alexander's conquest of Persia.[3]

References[change | change source]

  1. Becking, Bob (2020-08-04). Identity in Persian Egypt: The Fate of the Yehudite Community of Elephantine. Penn State Press. ISBN 978-1-64602-074-4. Arachosia is a mountainous area in which is now the border territory between Afghanistan and Pakistan...
  2. Samad, Rafi U. (2011). The Grandeur of Gandhara: The Ancient Buddhist Civilization of the Swat, Peshawar, Kabul and Indus Valleys. Algora Publishing. ISBN 978-0-87586-858-5. Arachosia, covering an area from Kandahar and Quetta to the western bank of the Indus, shared its northern boundary with Gandhara.
  3. Foundation, Encyclopaedia Iranica. "Welcome to Encyclopaedia Iranica". Retrieved 2024-03-31.