Cloud forest

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Tree ferns in a cloud forest on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo
One of the hanging bridges of the sky walk at the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Costa Rica

A cloud forest or fog forest is a (usually) tropical or subtropical, evergreen, montane, moist forest. It has a long-lasting, frequent or seasonal low-level cloud cover, usually at the canopy level.

Cloud forests often have mosses covering the ground and vegetation. Such mossy forests usually develop on the saddles of mountains, where moisture from clouds is held in place.[1]

Their altitude varies from 500 m to 4000 m above sea level. Often there is a particular altitude where the environment is suitable for cloud forest. This has fog at the vegetation level, reducing direct sunlight and loss of the watery mist. Much of the moisture to plants arrives by fog drip, where fog condenses on tree leaves and then drips onto the ground below.[2]

References[change | change source]

  1. Clarke C.M. 1997. Nepenthes of Borneo. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, p. 29.
  2. García-Santos G; Marzol M.V. & Aschan G. 2004. Water dynamics in a laurel montane cloud forest in the Garajonay National Park (Canary Islands, Spain). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 8, 1065-1075. [1]