Coffea (coffee) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae. Out of about 120 species, we make coffee from only two, Coffea arabica and C. canephora.
Coffea are shrubs or small trees, native to subtropical Africa and southern Asia. The seeds are called "beans" in the coffee trade. Beans from the two productive species are widely cultivated in tropical countries. Coffee is one of the world's major commodity crops and is the major export product of some countries.
The caffeine in coffee "beans" protects the seeds of the plant. It is a form of natural plant defense against herbivory. The fruits and leaves also contain caffeine, and can be used to make a tea called 'Coffee cherry tea'. The fruit is also used in many types of soft drink.
Several insect pests attack the plants and affect coffee production. Coffee is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species.
History[change | change source]
in Europe Coffee entered Europe through two routes, through land trade of the Ottoman Empire and through sea trade, from the ports of Yemen and the Horn of Africa. Was.
It was also raised in this country. Around 1650 AD, coffee was imported to England and coffeehouses were established in Oxford and London.
The cultivation of coffee plant in England started from the same time, but pests and the cold weather of the region destroyed the coffee plants and the British had to turn to tea cultivation instead of coffee cultivation, first in Europe to coffee as a drink. Muslims were viewed with suspicion, but it is said that around the year 1600, Pope Clement VIII enjoyed a cup of coffee so much that he considered its monopoly in the hands of Muslims as a great mistake and demanded to "baptize" it. Coffee drinking in Austria increased dramatically after the defeat of the siege of Vienna in 1683 and the confiscation of their large coffee reserves.
Before the beginning of the 18th century, the use of coffee drinks was common throughout Europe. European countries introduced this plant to tropical regions so that these countries can cultivate and mass produce coffee plants. In Europe, like the Middle East and Greater Iran, coffeehouses became a place for socializing, studying and exchanging opinions on current issues. Another similarity was the possibility of turning them into a gathering place for undesirable elements and vandals. Charles II, King of England, introduced coffeehouses as "places for traitors to meet, and to spread vulgar gossip about his Majesty and his ministers." In the 18th century, the famous Paris coffee house, Café Procope, had regular customers such as Mara, Danton and Robespierre who planned the revolution there during the French Revolution
Other websites[change | change source]
- Coffee & Conservation - Many resources on sustainable coffee, including reviews, especially shade coffee and biodiversity
- Just About Coffee — General information webpage about the coffee tree subject. Archived 2007-10-27 at the Wayback Machine
- Coffea arabica by James A. Duke — detailed information about this species.
References[change | change source]
- ↑ Briggs, Helen 2019. World's coffee under threat, say experts. BBC News.
- ↑ Burrell, Dori (23 April 2018). "SlimCafe Coffee Drinks". SlimFast.
- ↑ "Coffeeberry, Coffee Fruit, Cascara, FutureCeuticals, whole - FutureCeuticals". www.futureceuticals.com.
- ↑ "Starbucks". stories.starbucks.com.
- ↑ "Brazilian Cascara". Dwellers Coffee. Archived from the original on 2019-04-05. Retrieved 2019-02-13.