Doctor (title)

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Doctor is an academic degree, awarded by a university or similar institution. "Doctor" is used to refer to a person with a doctorate.

To obtain the degree, people need to pass a special exam, called a doctorate, or by writing a thesis. The requirements vary according to the subject-matter. A doctorate is usually regarded as a higher degree than a bachelor's degree (such as B.A. or B.Sc)

People who have a doctor's degree may use the title "doctor", though in practice it is often used only by medical doctors. Medical doctors examine, diagnose and treat patients. They can specialize in a number of medical areas, such as pediatrics, anesthesiology or cardiology, or they can work as general practice physicians. Becoming a medical doctor requires a doctoral degree in medicine and participating in clinical training. Medical doctors need a licence, and certification may also be required for many specialists.

  • Universities may award doctorates to people who have done a lot in their fields of study: these are called honorary doctorates. There is no set rule for this. Very often, these are abbreviated "Doctor h.c." (for "honoris causa").