The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was a duchy in the Baltic region. It existed from 1562 through 1795. It was a vassal state of Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later of Poland-Lithuania. It became independent in 1791, but was annexed by Russian Empire in 1795 during Third Partition of Poland. It was ruled by the dukes from the House of Kettlerwith the exception of Ernst Johann Biron and his son Peter von Biron.
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