Duchy of Parma

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Duchy of Parma

Ducato di Parma  (Italian)
1545–1802 (1808)

1814–1859
Flag of Parma
Flag
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Coat of arms
The Duchy of Parma and Piacenza (green)
The Duchy of Parma and Piacenza (green)
StatusState of the Holy Roman Empire (until 1806)
CapitalParma
Common languagesItalian, Emilian
Religion
Roman Catholic
GovernmentPrincipality
Duke of Parma 
• 1545–1547
Pier Luigi Farnese (first)
• 1854–1859
Roberto I (last)
History 
16 September 1545
24 April 1748
1 November 1802
• Formal annexation by France
1808
11 April 1814
3 December 1859
Currency"Parman lira"
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Duchy of Milan
Taro (department)
Taro (department)
United Provinces of Central Italy

The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, which had been conquered by the State of the Church in 1512. These territories, centered on the city of Parma, were given as a fief for Pope Paul III's illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese. The state was originally ruled by the Farnese family before eventually falling to the House of Bourbon by inheritance. Following the creation of the state of Italy in 1859 the duchy was abolished. It was also a state of the Holy Roman Empire till 1806 and had various links with its neighbour the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.