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Earth science

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A volcano eruption is the release of stored energy from below the surface of Earth. The heat comes mostly from radioactive decay, and convection, in the Earth's core and mantle.[1]

Earth science is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth.[2] Earth science may also be called geoscience. Geoscience is the study of the architecture of the Earth.

It is a broader term than geology because it includes aspects of planetary science, which is part of astronomy. The Earth sciences include the study of the atmosphere, oceans and biosphere, as well as the solid earth. Typically Earth scientists use ideas from physics, chemistry, biology, chronology and mathematics to understand the Earth, and how it evolved to its current state.

If there is one fact which underlies all Earth science it is this: the Earth is an ancient planet which has been changing the whole time since its formation. The extent of the changes is much greater than people used to think.[3]

Fields of study[change | change source]

The OrdovicianSilurian boundary, an example of marine transgression as exposed on the Southern tip of the Hovedøya island, Norway. Due to the folding of the Caledonian mountain range, the layers have been inverted, leaving Ordovician granular limestone on top of the later Silurian brownish mudstone.

The following disciplines are generally recognised as being within the geosciences:

List of Earth science topics[change | change source]

Atmosphere[change | change source]

Biosphere[change | change source]

Hydrosphere[change | change source]

Lithosphere or geosphere[change | change source]

Pedosphere[change | change source]

Systems[change | change source]

Others[change | change source]

  • Engineering Geology
  • Geostatistics
  • Geodesy

References[change | change source]

  1. Encyclopedia of Volcanoes. Academic Press, London, 2000.
  2. "Wordnet Search: Earth science". Archived from the original on 2020-04-10. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
  3. Van Andel, Tjeerd 1994. New views on an old planet: a history of global change. 2nd ed, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK.
  4. Adams, Simon & Lambert, David 2006. Earth Science: an illustrated guide to science. New York NY 10001: Chelsea House. ISBN 0-8160-6164-5.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Smith, Gary A. & Pun, Aurora 2006. How does the Earth work?. Pearson Prentice Hall, NJ. ISBN 0-13-034129-0.
  6. Wordnet Search: Geodesy[permanent dead link]
  7. NOAA National Ocean Service Education: Geodesy
  8. "Elissa Levine, 2001, The Pedosphere As A Hub". Archived from the original on 2007-10-30. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
  9. "Duane Gardiner, Lecture: Why study soils? excerpted from Miller R.W. & D.T. Gardiner, 1998. Soils in our environment, 8th Edition". Archived from the original on 2018-02-09. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
  10. CrashCourse (2015-01-15), Introduction to Astronomy: Crash Course Astronomy #1, retrieved 2017-11-27