Eichsfeld is a rural district in Thuringia, Germany, and is part of the historical region of Eichsfeld.
In medieval times, the district of Eichsfeld was much largaer than the present rural district and was owned by the Archbishops of Mainz.
Eichsfeld was the only part of Thuringia not to accept the Protestant Reformation, mostly because of the efforts of the Archbishop of Mainz.
In 1801, the clerical states were dissolved, and Prussia took over.
The present district was established in 1994 by merging the former districts of Worbis and Heiligenstadt.