An electric stove is a stove with electrical heating to cook and bake. The electric stove became popular as a replacement to the solid fuel (wood or coal) stove. Solid fuel stoves required more labor to maintain and operate.
The first technology used resistive heating coils. The coils heated iron hotplates. Pots were placed on top of them.
In the 1970s, glass-ceramic stoves began appearing. Glass-ceramic has very low thermal conductivity. It's a coefficient thermal expansion of almost zero. It lets infrared radition pass very well. Electrical heating coils or infrared halogen lamps are used for heating elements.