Erikson's stages of psychosocial development

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Erikson's stages of psychosocial development is the name of a theory of pyschology: Eric Ericson and his wife Joan Erickson coined the term. They found that during their lives, most people pass through eight stages of development.

Stages[change | change source]

Approximate Age
Virtues
Psychosocial crisis[1]
Significant relationship
Existential question[2]
Examples[2]
Infancy

Under 2 years

Hope Trust vs. Mistrust Mother Can I trust the world? Feeding, abandonment
Toddlerhood

2–4 years

Will Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt Parents Is it okay to be me? Toilet training, clothing themselves
Early childhood

5–8 years [3]

Purpose Initiative vs. Guilt Family Is it okay for me to do, move, and act? Exploring, using tools or making art
Middle Childhood

9–12 years [4]

Competence Industry vs. Inferiority Neighbors, School Can I make it in the world of people and things? School, sports
Adolescence

13–19 years [5]

Fidelity Identity vs. Role Confusion Peers, Role Model Who am I? Who can I be? Social relationships
Early adulthood

20–39 years [6]

Love Intimacy vs. Isolation Friends, Partners Can I love? Romantic relationships
Middle Adulthood

40–59 years [7]

Care Generativity vs. Stagnation Household, Workmates Can I make my life count? Work, parenthood
Late Adulthood

60 and above [8]

Wisdom Ego Integrity vs. Despair Mankind, My kind Is it okay to have been me? Reflection on life

References[change | change source]

  1. "Erikson Tutorial Home Page". web.cortland.edu.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Macnow, Alexander Stone, ed. (2014). MCAT Behavioral Science Review. New York City: Kaplan Publishing. p. 220. ISBN 978-1-61865-485-4.
  3. Human development: a psychological, biological, and sociological approach to the life span: "III 5–8 (Play Age) Initiative vs. Guilt Family Purpose".
  4. Human development: a psychological, biological, and sociological approach to the life span: "IV 9–12 (School Age) Industry vs. Inferiority Neighborhood, School Competence ".
  5. Human development: a psychological, biological, and sociological approach to the life span: "V 13–19 (Adolescence) Identity vs. Identity Confusion Peer Groups Leadership Models Fidelity".
  6. Intergenerational Programs: Imperatives, Strategies, Impacts, Trends: "First, he considers young adulthood (age 20–39) which he describes as the struggle of "intamacy vs isolation."".
  7. Intergenerational Programs: Imperatives, Strategies, Impacts, Trends: "In Middle adulthood (age 40–59), the conflict of "generativity vs stagnation" arises".
  8. Intergenerational Programs: Imperatives, Strategies, Impacts, Trends: "Finally, Erikson takes us to the eighth stage of adulthood known as "later adulthood" (over 60) where development focuses on the integration of life's experiences, on embracing these experiences as inevitable aspects of oneself, and on accepting an orderliness in life and death".