Psychology

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Psychology is the study of the mind. The study also covers thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. It also falls under the academic domain; some parts of psychology follow the way of doing science: explains the mind, how it works, and what it shows through our actions.[1][2][3][4][5]

When doing psychology, it has to deal with humans most of the time but animals beyond humans at some point. [6][7] People, experts or not, can't study psychology as a whole. So, we divide small parts of it one step at a time. Also, psychology has much in common with other fields that they overlap with one another. Some of these fields fall in natural sciences or not.

Psychologists practice the field in the profession; they undergo long years of schooling than laypeople. These practitioners attempt to explain how minds function in the self (individual) and self with others (social). These attempts might also deal with how the body's way affects the mind--its processes and approaches. They can also be scientists in the field of social, behavioral, and cognitive.  

Branches[change | change source]

Psychology has been split up into smaller parts called branches. These are subjects in psychology that try to answer a particular group of questions about how people think. Some branches of psychology that are often studied are:

Methods[change | change source]

Scientific approaches[change | change source]

Psychology is a type of science, and research psychologists use many of the same types of methods that researchers from other natural and social sciences use.

Psychologists make theories to try to explain a behavior or pattern they see. Based on their theory they make some predictions. They then carry out an experiment or collect other types of information that will tell them whether their predictions were right or wrong.

Some types of experiments cannot be done on people because the process would be too long, expensive, dangerous, unfair, or otherwise unethical. There are also other ways psychologists study the mind and behavior scientifically, and test their theories. Psychologists might wait for some events to happen on their own; they might look at patterns among existing groups of people in natural environments; or they might do experiments on animals (which can be simpler and more ethical to study).

Psychology shares other things with natural sciences, as well. For example, a good psychological theory may be possible to prove wrong. Just like in any natural science, a group of psychologists can never be completely sure that their theory is the right one. If a theory can be proved wrong, but experiments do not prove it wrong, then it is more likely that the theory is accurate. This is called falsifiability.

Psychologists use many tools as part of their daily work. Psychologists use surveys to ask people how they feel and what they think. They may use special devices to look at the brain and to see what it is doing. Psychologists use computers to collect data as they measure how people behave in response to pictures, words, symbols, or other stimuli. Psychologists also use statistics to help them analyze the data that they get from their experiments.[24][25]

Symbolic and subjective approaches[change | change source]

Not all psychology is scientific psychology. Psychodynamic psychology and depth psychology do things like interpreting people's dreams to understand the unconscious mind.[26][27] They are older approaches to psychology begun by Carl Jung who was particularly interested in finding methods for measuring what kind of personality people have.[28]

Humanistic psychology and existential psychology also believe that it is more important to understand personal meaning than to find causes and effects of mental processes and behaviors.[29][30]

Psychologists[change | change source]

Psychologists are people who work in the field of psychology. A psychologist may work in either basic research or applied research. Basic research is the study of people or animals to learn more about them. Applied research is using what was learned from basic research to solve real-world problems. If he or she is qualified as a clinical psychologist they may be a therapist or counsellor as well as a researcher.

To become a psychologist, a person must first get a basic degree at a university and then go to graduate school. A Master's degree, either MSc (Master of Science) or MA (Master of Arts) allows work such as a school psychologist. A doctorate degree takes a longer time because it includes doing research and writing a detailed report called a dissertation or thesis. The doctoral graduate uses the initials PhD or DPhil (Doctor of Philosophy) after his or her name. Some clinical psychologists earn a Doctor of Psychology degree and use the initials PsyD after their name. The American Psychological Association says that people need a PhD (or PsyD) and a current state license in the U.S.) in order to call themselves a 'psychologist'.

The words psychologist and psychiatrist may be confused with each other. A psychiatrist has graduated from medical school and uses the initials MD or its equivalent (MB ChB in London University, for example). A psychiatrist or doctor may work with a psychologist: they may prescribe and check on the effect of medications.

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "How does the APA defin"psychology"?". Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  2. "Definition of "psychology (APA's Index Page)"". Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  3. Fernald L.D. 2008. Psychology: six perspectives (pp. 12–15). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  4. Hockenbury & Hockenbury. 2010. Psychology. Worth Publishers.
  5. O'Neil, H.F.; cited in Coon D. & Mitterer J.O. 2008. Introduction to psychology: gateways to mind and behavior 12th ed, Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning, pp. 15–16.
  6. Hamm, M., & Mitchell, R. W. (1997). The interpretation of animal psychology: anthropomorphism or behavior reading?. Behaviour, 134(3-4), 173-204.
  7. Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1989). Adaption versus phylogeny: The role of animal psychology in the study of human behavior. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2(3).
  8. Rosenhan, D. L., & Seligman, M. E. (1995). Abnormal psychology. WW Norton & Co.
  9. Barker, C., Pistrang, N., & Elliott, R. (2015). Research methods in clinical psychology: An introduction for students and practitioners. John Wiley & Sons.
  10. Eysenck, M. W., & Keane, M. T. (2005). Cognitive psychology: A student's handbook. Taylor & Francis.
  11. Bruning, R. H., Schraw, G. J., & Ronning, R. R. (1999). Cognitive psychology and instruction. Prentice-Hall, Inc., One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
  12. Berry, J. W., Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Segall, M. H., & Dasen, P. R. (2002). Cross-cultural psychology: Research and applications. Cambridge University Press.
  13. Shaffer, D. R., & Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental psychology: Childhood and adolescence. Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
  14. Hetherington, E. M., Parke, R. D., & Locke, V. O. (1999). Child psychology: A contemporary viewpoint. McGraw-Hill.
  15. Good, T. L., & Brophy, J. E. (1990). Educational psychology: A realistic approach. Longman/Addison Wesley Longman.
  16. Buss, D. M. (Ed.). (2005). The handbook of evolutionary psychology. John Wiley & Sons.
  17. Barrett, L., Dunbar, R., & Lycett, J. (2002). Human evolutionary psychology. Princeton University Press.
  18. Buss, D. (2015). Evolutionary psychology: The new science of the mind. Psychology Press.
  19. Walsh, K. W. (1978). Neuropsychology: A clinical approach. Churchill Livingstone.
  20. Reis, H. T., Reis, H. T., & Judd, C. M. (Eds.). (2000). Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology. Cambridge University Press.
  21. Sniderman, P. M., Brody, R. A., & Tetlock, P. E. (1993). Reasoning and choice: Explorations in political psychology. Cambridge University Press.
  22. Deutsch, M. (1983). What is Political Psychology?. International Social Science Journal, 35(2), 221-36.
  23. McDougall, W. (2015). An introduction to social psychology. Psychology Press.
  24. Aron, A., & Aron, E. N. (1999). Statistics for psychology. Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  25. Coolican, H. (2018). Research methods and statistics in psychology. Routledge.
  26. Rulla, L. M. (1971). Depth psychology and vocation: A psycho-social perspective. Gregorian Biblical BookShop.
  27. McNeely, D. A. (1987). Touching: Body therapy and depth psychology. Inner City Books.
  28. Hopcke, R. H. (2013). A guided tour of the collected works of CG Jung. Shambhala Publications.
  29. Schneider, K. J., Pierson, J. F., & Bugental, J. F. (Eds.). (2014). The handbook of humanistic psychology: Theory, research, and practice. Sage Publications.
  30. Jacobsen, B. (2007). Invitation to existential psychology. Wiley.

Other websites[change | change source]