Fruit fly may mean the flies in two families:
- Drosophilidae, a family of small flies. The family contains more than 4,000 species classified under 75 genera.
- Drosophila: the genus of small fruit flies and vinegar flies, especially Drosophila melanogaster, famous for its role in 20th century genetics.
- Tephritidae, a family of large, colorfully marked flies which are mostly pests. Nearly 5,000 described species of tephritid fruit fly are put in almost 500 genera
- Bactrocera cucurbitae or melon fly, an agricultural pest in Asian countries
- Bactrocera oleae or olive fruit fly, native to the Eastern Hemisphere and an invasive species in North America
- Bactrocera tryoni or Queensland fruit fly, an invasive pest species in Australia
- Vidalia (fruit fly), a genus.