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The red things are galls produced by a gall mite on a leaf
Gall produced by an insect on a vine
Galls can also appear on skeletal animals and in the fossil record. Two galls with perforations on a crinoid stem from the Middle Jurassic of southern Israel
Oak apple or oak gall is a large, round, gall commonly found on species of oak, 2–5 cm in diameter. They are caused by chemicals injected by the larva of certain kinds of gall wasp in the family Cynipidae

Galls are growths on the surface of plants and other lifeforms. They are caused by various parasites, such as fungi, bacteria, insects and mites.

Plant galls are abnormal growths of plant tissues similar to benign tumors or warts in animals.[1]

What causes a plant gall can often be known without the actual agent being there. Many types of gall have typical structures. This is true of many galls produced by insects and mites.

Insect galls on plants give some herbivorous insects their own microhabitat. They are plant tissue which is controlled by the insect. Galls are the habitat and food source for the maker of the gall. The gall may contain nutritious starch and other tissues.[2] Galls often give the insect physical protection from predators.[3][4]

Insect galls are usually induced by chemicals injected by the larvae or the adults of the insects into the plants, and possibly by mechanical damage. After the galls are formed, the larvae develop inside until fully grown, when they leave. In order to form galls, the insects must seize the time when plant cell division occurs quickly. The growing season, usually spring in temperate climates, is longer in the tropics.

References[change | change source]

  1. [1] Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, accessed Nov. 16, 2007 ("an abnormal outgrowth of plant tissue usually due to insect or mite parasites or fungi and sometimes forming an important source of tannin")
  2. Larson K.C. and T.G. Whitham 1991. Manipulation of food resources by a gall-forming aphid: the physiology of sink-source interactions. Oecologia 88, 15–21.
  3. Weis A.E. and A. Kapelinski 1994. Variable selection on Eurosta’s gall size, II: a path analysis of the ecological factors behind selection. Evolution 48, 734–745.
  4. Stone, Graham N. and Schonrogge, Karsten 2003. The adaptive significance of insect gall morphology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18(10): , 512-522

Gallery[change | change source]