Hussein bin Ali, King of Hejaz

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Sharif Hussein, 1916

Hussein bin Ali Al-Hashimi, was the Sharif of Mecca and the one who, following the Hussein McMahon correspondace, incited the Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire in World War l. By calling themselves Hashemites, his family claims to descend from the Prophet Banu Hashim. This lineage, along with the fact taht Sharif Hussein has been the official protector of the holy sites of Mecca and Medina since 1908, legitimized him for many Arab Muslims as the natural leader of the Arabs.

Having been under Ottoman rule for a long time and serving as officials of the Ottoman government, Sharif Hussein and his sons did not participate in the Arab nationalist movement and political opposition that had emerged in Damascus, Beirut and Cairo around 1912 before the First World War. However, their position changed when the Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamit II and the CUP government began to centralize their power, narrowing down on Hussein with the Hijaz railway from Damascus to Medina, thereby threatening the autonomous power of Sharif Hussein in 1908. When war broke out, Hussein saw an opportunity to expand his influence and oppose Ottoman rule. Sharif Hussein became the leader of the Arab revolt and in the subsequent Hussein-McMahon correspondence, it was he who negotiated with the British for an independent Arab state in exchange for the Arab revolt against the Ottomans.[1]

References[change | change source]

  1. Anderson, Betty S. (2016). A history of the modern Middle East : Rulers, Rebels, and Rogues. Stanford: Stanford University Press. pp. 189–191. ISBN 978-0-8047-8324-8. OCLC 934278220.
al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Mu‘īn ibn ‘Awn
Born: 1854 Died: 4 June 1931
Regnal titles
New creation
King of the Arab Lands
October 1916 – 3 October 1924
Recognized by the Allies only as King of Hejaz
Succeeded by
Ali ibn al-Husayn
as King of Hejaz
Preceded by
Himself
as Ottoman emir
Sharif and Emir of Mecca
June 1916 – 3 October 1924
Succeeded by
Ali ibn al-Husayn
Political offices
Preceded by
Abd al-Ilah Pasha
Sharif and Emir of Mecca
November 1908 – June 1916
Ottoman-appointed
Succeeded by
Himself
as independent emir
Succeeded by
Ali Haydar Pasha
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Abdülmecid II
— TITULAR —
Caliph of the Muslims
11 March 1924 – 3 October 1924
Reason for succession failure:
Not widely recognized
Vacant