Kemalism is a political philosophy or ideology which was used when the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923. It is named afer Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Atatürk defined six principles, which he called arrows:
- The new state should be a republic, because that is the best form of government
- Laicism there should be a clear separation between religious beliefs and the state.
- Populism- the state must represent all the people, and not only a select group
- Revolutionism - reforms should be possible at any time
- Nationalism - not like the Osmanic Empire
- Statism- the state should have the power to direct or control a small part of the economy for a short time, if that is necessary
Since 2001, there are tendencies to give Islam a higher presence in society, and to make Kemallism less important.