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List of satellites sent to Venus

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Since 1961, a total of 30 man-made satellites have been launched with the goal of reaching the planet Venus. The satellites sent were 4 Mariner satellites, from the United States, and 18 Venera satellites[a], from the Soviet Union, as well as 8 other satellites. Of these, 23 total succeeded (3 Mariner, 12 Venera, and 8 others), 1 was a partial failure (Venera), and 6 failed (1 Mariner and 5 Venera), giving missions to Venus a success rate of approximately 77% percent.

Mariner Satellites[change | change source]

Name Launch Date Country(s) Date of Arrival at Venus Date of Last Radio Signal Did It Work as Planned? Source(s)
Mariner 1 July 22, 1962 United States Never happened because of launch failure July 22, 1962 No [1]
Mariner 2 August 27, 1962 United States December 14, 1962 Janaury 3, 1963 Yes [2][3]
Mariner 5 June 14, 1967 United States June 19, 1967 October 14, 1968 Yes [4][5]
Mariner 10 November 3, 1973 United States February 5, 1974 March 24, 1975 Yes [6][7]

Venera Satellites[change | change source]

Name Launch Date Country(s) Date of Arrival at Venus Date of Last Radio Signal (lander/impactor) Date of Last Radio Signal (orbiter/fly-by craft/kickstage) Did It Work as Planned? Source(s)
Sputnik 7[b] February 4, 1961 Soviet Union Never happened because of failure to leave Low Earth orbit No lander[c] February 26, 1961 No [3]
Sputnik 19 August 25, 1962 Soviet Union Never happened because of failure to leave Low Earth orbit No lander August 28, 1962 No [3]
Venera 1 February 12, 1961 Soviet Union May 19, 1961 No lander February 17, 1961 No [8]
Venera 2 November 12, 1965 Soviet Union February 27, 1966 No lander February 1966 No [9][10]
Venera 3 November 16, 1965 Soviet Union March 1, 1966 February 16, 1966 February 16, 1966 No [11][12]
Venera 4 June 12, 1967 Soviet Union October 18, 1967 No lander October 18, 1967 Yes [13]
Venera 5 January 5, 1969 Soviet Union May 16, 1969 May 16, 1969 May 16, 1969 Yes [14]
Venera 6 January 10, 1969 Soviet Union May 17, 1969 May 17, 1969 May 17, 1969 Yes [15]
Venera 7 August 17, 1970 Soviet Union December 15, 1970 December 15, 1970 December 15, 1970 Landed but rolled and returned very little data [16]
Venera 8 March 27, 1972 Soviet Union July 22, 1972 July 22, 1972 July 22, 1972 Yes [17]
Venera 9 June 8, 1975 Soviet Union October 22, 1975 October 22, 1975 March 22, 1976 Yes [18]
Venera 10 June 14, 1975 Soviet Union October 25, 1975 October 25, 1975 June 1976 [19][3]
Venera 11 September 9, 1978 Soviet Union December 25, 1978 December 25, 1978 February 1980 Yes, small issues with the some of the tools on the mission [20][21]
Venera 12 September 14, 1978 Soviet Union December 21, 1978 December 21, 1978 December 21, 1978 Yes, small issues with the some of the tools on the mission [22]
Venera 13 October 30, 1981 Soviet Union March 1, 1982 March 1, 1982 April 25, 1983 Yes [23]
Venera 14 November 4, 1981 Soviet Union March 5, 1982 March 5, 1982 April 9, 1983 Yes [24][3]
Venera 15 June 2, 1983 Soviet Union October 1983 No lander July 1984 Yes [25][26]
Venera 16 June 7, 1983 Soviet Union October 1983 No lander July 1984 Yes [25][26]

Other Satellites[change | change source]

Name Launch Date Country(s) Date of Arrival at Venus Date of Last Radio Signal (lander) Date of Last Radio Signal (orbiter/fly-by craft/kickstage) Did it Work as Planned? Source(s)
Pioneer Venus 1 May 20, 1978 United States December 4, 1978 No lander October 8, 1992 Yes [27]
Pioneer Venus 2 August 8, 1978 United States December 9, 1978 December 9, 1978 December 9, 1978 Yes [28]
Vega 1 December 15, 1984 Soviet Union June 11, 1985 June 13, 1985 January 30, 1987 Yes [29][30][3]
Vega 2 December 19, 1984 Soviet Union June 15, 1985 June 18, 1985 March 24, 1987 Yes [30][31][3]
Magellan May 4, 1989 United States August 10, 1990 No lander October 13, 1994 Yes [32]
Venus Express November 9, 2005 European Union April 11, 2006 No lander November 28, 2014 Yes [3]
Venus Climate Orbiter May 20, 2010 Japan December 6, 2010 (first), November 22, 2015 (second) No lander Currently Operational Yes, failed to enter Venus orbit on first attempt but succeed in second attempt [3]
IKAROS May 20, 2010 Japan December 8, 2010 No lander May 21, 2015 Yes [3]

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Venera was a name only given to Venus missions that left Low Earth orbit. Missions that failed to do so where given either Sputnik or Kosmos names instead. They are still counted as Venera satellites, as that was their intended name.
  2. Venera was a name only given to Venus missions that left Low Earth orbit. Missions that failed to do so where given either Sputnik or Kosmos names instead. They are still included in the Venera list, as that was their intended name.
  3. No lander means that no lander or impactor ever went into the Venusian atmosphere with the goal of landing or impacting. Launch failures, or satellites that failed to reach Venus, do not count.

References[change | change source]

  1. "Mariner 1 - NASA Science". science.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  2. https://www.jpl.nasa.gov. "Mariner 2 - Venus Missions - NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Retrieved May 12, 2024. {{cite web}}: External link in |last= (help)
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 "Beyond Earth: A Chronicle of Deep Space Exploration, 1958–2016 - NASA". Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  4. https://www.jpl.nasa.gov. "Mariner 5 - Venus Missions - NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Retrieved May 12, 2024. {{cite web}}: External link in |last= (help)
  5. "Mariner 5 - NASA Science". science.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  6. "Mariner 10 | National Air and Space Museum". airandspace.si.edu. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  7. published, Elizabeth Howell (October 31, 2012). "Mariner 10: First Mission to Mercury". Space.com. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  8. "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  9. https://www.nasa.gov/wp-content/uploads/2023/04/sp-4524.pdf
  10. "Venera | Soviet Exploration, Technology & Discoveries | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  11. "1 March". www.esa.int. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  12. "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  13. "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  14. "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  15. "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  16. "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  17. "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  18. "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  19. "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  20. "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  21. "Drilling into the Surface of Venus". mentallandscape.com. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  22. "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  23. "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  24. "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  25. 25.0 25.1 "Venera 15 & 16". solarviews.com. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  26. 26.0 26.1 published, Robert Z. Pearlman (September 12, 2021). "Venera timeline: The Soviet Union's Venus missions in pictures". Space.com. Retrieved May 12, 2024.
  27. "Pioneer Venus 1 - NASA Science". science.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 14, 2024.
  28. "Pioneer Venus 2 - NASA Science". science.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 15, 2024.
  29. "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 15, 2024.
  30. 30.0 30.1 "SBN Mission Support: Vega 1". pds-smallbodies.astro.umd.edu. Retrieved May 15, 2024.
  31. "Solar System Exploration: Missions: By Target: Venus: Past: Vega 2". web.archive.org. April 14, 2014. Archived from the original on April 14, 2014. Retrieved May 15, 2024.
  32. "Magellan - NASA Science". science.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 15, 2024.