Migration period

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The migration period, or barbarian invasions or Völkerwanderung, is a name for the period of roughly AD 300–700 in Europe.[1][2] That was the period at the end of Ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages.

2nd to fifth century simplified migrations. See also map of the world in AD 820.

Migrations[change | change source]

The migration included the Goths, Vandals, and Franks, among other Germanic, Bulgar and Slavic tribes.[3] The migration may have been influenced by attacks of the Huns in the east and connected to the Turkic migration in Central Asia, population pressures, or climate changes. The migration period also included groups of Angles, Saxons, Frisians and some Jutes to Britain.[4]

Migrations would continue well beyond 1000 AD, successive waves of Slavs, Alans, Avars, Bulgars, Hungarians, Pechenegs, Cumans, and Tatars changed the ethnic makeup of Eastern Europe.[5] Western European historians, however, tend to stress the migrations most relevant to Western Europe.

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. Precise dates given may vary; often cited is 410, the sack of Rome by Alaric I and 751, the accession of Pippin the Short and the establishment of the Carolingian Dynasty.
  2. Climate change and human mobility: challenges to the social sciences, eds. Kirsten Hastrup, Karen Fog Olwig (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012), p. 29.
  3. John Bagnell Bury, A History of the Later Roman Empire: From Arcadius to Irene (395 A.D. to 800 A.D.) (London; New York: Macmillan and Company, 1889), p. 31
  4. Peter Hunter Blair; Simon Keynes, An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 10
  5. Lucy Mallows, Transylvania (Chalfont St. Peter: Bradt Travel Guides, 2008), p. 18

Other websites[change | change source]