Navy bean

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Navy Bean
SpeciesPhaseolus vulgaris
File:Phaseolus vulgaris white beans, witte boon.jpg
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,468 kJ (351 kcal)
Carbohydrates 60.75 g
- Sugars 3.88 g
- Dietary fiber 24.4 g
Fat 1.5 g
Protein 22.33 g
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

The navy bean, haricot, pearl haricot bean,[1] Boston bean,[2] white pea bean,[3] or pea bean[4] is a variety of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) native to the Americas, where it was first domesticated.[5] It is a dry white bean that is smaller than many other types of white beans, and has an oval, slightly flattened shape.[1] It features in such dishes as baked beans,[1] various soups such as Senate bean soup,[6] and even pies.

The green bean plants[2] that produce navy beans may be either of the bush type or vining type, depending on which cultivar they are.[7]

History[change | change source]

Navy beans being served at the Navy Memorial (2007)

The name "Navy bean" is an American term coined because the US Navy has served the beans as a staple to its sailors since the mid-1800s.[8]

In Australia, navy bean production began during World War II when it became necessary to find an economical way of supplying a nutritious food to the many troops—especially American troops—based in Queensland. The United States military maintained a large base in Kingaroy and had many bases and camps throughout south-east Queensland. It actively encouraged the widespread planting of the beans.[8] Kingaroy is known as the Baked Bean Capital of Australia.[8] Another popular name for the bean during this time was "the Yankee bean".[8]

Cultivars[change | change source]

Navy bean cultivars include:

  • "Rainy River"[9]
  • "Robust", resistant to the bean common mosaic virus (BCMV),[10] which is transmitted through seeds[9]
  • Michelite, descended from 'Robust', but with higher yields and better seed quality[9]
  • Sanilac, the first bush navy bean cultivar[9]

Other white beans[change | change source]

Other varieties of white beans include:

  • Cannellini (or fazolia[2]) are a white kidney bean that is popular in central and southern Italy, but first developed in Argentina.[2] They are larger than navy beans and closely related to the red kidney bean[source?] They are used in minestrone soups.[2]
  • Lima beans, also known as Butter Beans.
  • Great northern, also called "large white" beans, are larger than navy beans as well, but smaller than cannellini beans. They have a flattened shape similar to lima beans and a delicate flavor.[source?]
  • The runner bean, Phaseolus coccineus, is a large white bean known in Greece as gígantes (Greek: γίγαντες, "giants") and eléfantes (ελέφαντες, "elephants").
  • The marrow bean, a medium to large white bean with a bacon-like flavor, which was popular for baked beans in the U.S. in the 19th and early 20th centuries.[11]

Nutritional value[change | change source]

White beans are the most abundant plant-based source of phosphatidylserine (PS) yet known.[12] It contains notably high levels of apigenin, 452±192 μg/kg, which vary widely among legumes.[13]

Consumption of baked beans has been shown to lower total cholesterol levels and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.[14][15] This might be at least partly explained by the high saponin content of navy beans. Saponins also exhibit antibacterial and anti-fungal activity, and have been found to inhibit cancer cell growth.[16] Furthermore, navy beans are the richest source of ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid among the common bean varieties.[17]

Storage and safety[change | change source]

Dried and canned beans stay fresh longer by storing them in a pantry or other cool, dark place under 75 °F (24 °C). With normal seed storage, seeds should last from one to four years for replanting, with a very large timetable for cooking for well-kept seeds, nearing on indefinite. Avoid beans that are discolored from the pure white color of these beans, as they may have been poorly handled while they dried.[18]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Beans, White Pearl Haricot, Dried, per kilo". Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Willan, Anne (1989-09-17). La Varenne Pratique: Part 3, Vegetables, Pasta & Grains. p. 205. ISBN 9780991134625.[permanent dead link]
  3. "Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)". Pulse Canada. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  4. "Pea bean". The American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved 2013-09-17.
  5. Paul Gepts (December 1998). "Origin and evolution of common bean: past events and recent trends". HortScience. 33 (7): 1124–1130. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI.33.7.1124.
  6. [ Senate Bean Soup]
  7. Mark Goodwin (2003). "Crop Profile for Dry Beans" (PDF). Pulse Canada. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 November 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 "History". Bean Growers Australia. Archived from the original on 2017-10-07. Retrieved 2017-10-06.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 James D. Kelly. "One Hundred Years of Bean Breeding at Michigan State University: A Chronology" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 November 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  10. Schwartz, H.F.; Corrales, M.A.P. (1989). Bean Production Problems in the Tropics. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). ISBN 9789589183045.
  11. GourmetSleuth. "Marrow beans". Gourmet Sleuth. Archived from the original on 2019-07-30. Retrieved 2019-07-30.
  12. Souci SW, Fachmann E, Kraut H (2008). Food Composition and Nutrition Tables. Medpharm Scientific Publishers Stuttgart.
  13. Konar, Nevzat (2013). "Non-isoflavone phytoestrogenic compound contents of various legumes". European Food Research and Technology. 236 (3): 523–530. doi:10.1007/s00217-013-1914-0. S2CID 85373016.
  14. Shutler, Susan M.; Bircher, Gemma M.; Tredger, Jacki A.; Morgan, Linda M.; Walker, Ann F.; Low, A. G. (2007). "The effect of daily baked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) consumption on the plasma lipid levels of young, normo-cholesterolaemic men". British Journal of Nutrition. 61 (2): 257–265. doi:10.1079/BJN19890114. PMID 2650733.
  15. Winham, Donna M.; Hutchins, Andrea M. (2007). "Baked bean consumption reduces serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults". Nutrition Research. 27 (7): 380–386. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2007.04.017.
  16. Shi, John; Xue, Sophia Jun; Ma, Ying; Li, Dong; Kakuda, Yukio; Lan, Yubin (2009). "Kinetic study of saponins B stability in navy beans under different processing conditions". Journal of Food Engineering. 93: 59–65. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2008.12.035.
  17. Luthria, Devanand L.; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A. (2006). "Phenolic acids content of fifteen dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties". Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 19 (2–3): 205–211. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2005.09.003.
  18. "How Long Do Beans Last?". Retrieved 23 November 2014.