Neurolinguistic programming is a way of communicating, created in the 1970s. It is often shortened to NLP. The discipline assumes there is a link between neurological processes, language and behavior. According to NLP, it is possible to achieve certain goals in life by changing one's behaviour. Certain neuroscientists psychologists and linguists, believe that NLP is unsupported by current scientific evidence and that it uses incorrect and misleading terms and concepts.
NLP was invented by Richard Bandler and John Grinder. According to these people, NLP can help solve problems such as phobias, depression, habit disorder, psychosomatic illnesses, and learning disorders.
Reviews of empirical research on NLP show that NLP contains many factual errors. It did not produce reliable results for the claims for effectiveness made by NLP’ developers and proponents. According to Devilly, NLP is no longer as common as it was in the 1970s and 1980s. Criticisms go beyond the lack of empirical evidence for effectiveness; critics say that NLP has pseudoscientific characteristics, title, concepts and terminology. One example where NLP is used as pseudoscience is to make the teaching of scientific literacy at the professional and university level easier. NLP also appears on peer reviewed expert-consensus based lists of discredited interventions. In research designed to identify the “quack factor” in modern mental health practice, Norcross et al. (2006)  list NLP as possibly or probably discredited, and in papers reviewing discredited interventions for substance and alcohol abuse, Norcross et al. (2010) list NLP in the top ten most discredited, and Glasner-Edwards and Rawson (2010) list NLP as “certainly discredited”.
References[change | change source]
- Tosey, P. & Mathison, J., (2006) "Introducing Neuro-Linguistic Programming Centre for Management Learning & Development, School of Management, University of Surrey.
- Dilts, R., Grinder, J., Delozier, J., and Bandler, R. (1980). Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I: The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience. Cupertino, CA: Meta Publications. p. 2. ISBN 0-916990-07-9.
- Corballis, MC., "Are we in our right minds?" In Sala, S., (ed.) (1999), Mind Myths: Exploring Popular Assumptions About the Mind and Brain Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons. ISBN 0-471-98303-9 (pp. 25–41) see page p.41
- Drenth P J D: (1999). "Prometheus chained: Social and ethical constraints on psychology.". European Psychologist 4 (4): 233–239.
- Witkowski (2010). "Thirty-Five Years of Research on Neuro-Linguistic Programming. NLP Research Data Base. State of the Art or Pseudoscientific Decoration?". Polish Psychological Bulletin 41 (2): 58–66.
- Stollznow.K (2010). "Not-so Linguistic Programming". Skeptic 15 (4): 7.
- Lum.C (2001). Scientific Thinking in Speech and Language Therapy. Psychology Press. pp. 16. ISBN 0-8058-4029-X.
- Bergen Von et al. (1997). "Selected alternative training techniques in HRD". Human Resource Development Quarterly 8: 281–294. doi:10.1002/hrdq.3920080403.
- Druckman, Daniel (2004) "Be All That You Can Be: Enhancing Human Performance" Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Volume 34, Number 11, November 2004, pp. 2234–2260(27) doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2004.tb01975.x
- Sharpley C.F. (1987). "Research Findings on Neuro-linguistic Programming: Non supportive Data or an Untestable Theory". Journal of Counseling Psychology 34 (1): 103–107, 105. doi:10.1037/0022-0188.8.131.52. http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=EJ352101.
- Devilly GJ (2005). "Power therapies and possible threats to the science of psychology and psychiatry". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 39: 437–45. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1614.2005.01601.x. PMID 15943644. http://www.devilly.org/Publications/Power_Therapies_-_Published.pdf.
- Norcross et al. (2006) Discredited Psychological Treatments and Tests: A Delphi Poll. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.37.5.515
- Lilienfeld.S, Mohr.J., Morier.D.. (2001). "The Teaching of Courses in the Science and Pseudoscience of Psychology: Useful Resources". Teaching of Psychology 28 (3): 182–191.
- Dunn.D., Halonen.J,Smith.R., (2008). Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 12. ISBN 978-1-4051-7402-2.
- Norcross, J.C., Koocher, G.P., Fala, N.C., & Wexler, K.W. (2010) "What Does Not Work? Expert Consensus on Discredited Treatments in the Addictions", Journal of Addiction Medicine, vol. 4, no. 3, (September 2010), pp 176-177
- Glasner-Edwards.S.,Rawson.R. (June 2010). "Evidence-based practices in addiction treatment: review and recommendations for public policy". Health Policy 97 (2-3): 93–104.