Normal distribution

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Probability density function
Probability density function for the normal distribution
The green line is the standard normal distribution
Cumulative distribution function
Cumulative distribution function for the normal distribution
Colors match the image above
Parameters location (real)
squared scale (real)
Probability density function (pdf)
Cumulative distribution function (cdf)
Skewness 0
Excess kurtosis 0
Moment-generating function (mgf)
Characteristic function

The normal distribution is a probability distribution. It is also called Gaussian distribution because it was first discovered by Carl Friedrich Gauss.[1] The normal distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is very important in many fields of science.[2]

Normal distributions are a family of distributions of the same general form. These distributions differ in their location and scale parameters:

  • The mean ("average") of the distribution defines its location.
  • The standard deviation ("variability") defines the scale.

These two parameters are represented by the symbols and , respectively.[3]

The standard normal distribution (also known as the Z distribution) is the normal distribution with a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one (the green curves in the plots to the right).[3] It is often called the bell curve, because the graph of its probability density looks like a bell.

Many values follow a normal distribution.[4] This is because of the central limit theorem, which says that if an event is the sum of identical but random events, it will be normally distributed.[5] Some examples include:[6]

  • Height
  • Test scores
  • Measurement errors
  • Light intensity (so-called Gaussian beams, as in laser light)
  • Intelligence is probably normally distributed. There is a problem with accurately defining or measuring it, though.
  • Insurance companies use normal distributions to model certain average cases.

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. Kirkwood, Betty R; Sterne, Jonathan AC (2003). Essential Medical Statistics. Blackwell Science Ltd.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. "Normal Distribution | Data Basecamp". 2021-11-26. Retrieved 2022-07-15.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "List of Probability and Statistics Symbols". Math Vault. 2020-04-26. Retrieved 2020-08-15.
  4. "Normal Distribution - easily explained! | Data Basecamp". 2021-11-26. Retrieved 2023-05-29.
  5. Weisstein, Eric W. "Normal Distribution". Retrieved 2020-08-15.
  6. "Normal Distribution". Retrieved 2020-08-15.

Other websites[change | change source]