Norovirus

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Norovirus
Other namesWinter vomiting bug,[1] stomach bug
Norwalk.jpg
Transmission electron microscope image of Norwalk virus. The white bar = 50 nm
SpecialtyEmergency medicine, pediatrics
SymptomsDiarrhea, vomiting, stomach pain, headache[2]
ComplicationsDehydration[2]
Usual onset12 to 48 hours after exposure[2]
Duration1 to 3 days[2]
CausesNorovirus[3]
Diagnostic methodBased on symptoms[3]
PreventionHand washing, disinfection of contaminated surfaces[4]
TreatmentSupportive care (drinking sufficient fluids or intravenous fluids)[5]
Frequency685 million cases per year[6]
Deaths200,000 per year[6][7]

Norovirus (or winter vomiting disease) is a common cause of gastroenteritis.[1][6]

It causes non-bloody diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain.[2] You have to drink lots of water.[2]

Risk factors include unsanitary food preparation.[3] Diagnosis is generally based on symptoms.[3]

Wash your hands properly. Disinfect contaminated surfaces.[4] There is no vaccine or specific treatment for norovirus.[4][5]

Norovirus results in about 685 million cases of disease and 200,000 deaths globally a year.[6][7] It is common.[3][8]

Those under the age of five are most often affected, and in this group it results in about 50,000 deaths in the developing world.[6] Norovirus infections occur more commonly during winter months.[6] It often occurs in outbreaks, especially among those living in close quarters.[3] In the United States, it is the cause of about half of all foodborne disease outbreaks.[3] The virus is named after the city of Norwalk, Ohio, US where an outbreak occurred in 1968.[9][10]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Norovirus (vomiting bug)". nhs.uk. 2017-10-19. Archived from the original on 2018-06-12. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 "Norovirus Symptoms". CDC. 24 June 2016. Archived from the original on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Brunette GW (2017). CDC Yellow Book 2018: Health Information for International Travel. Oxford University Press. p. 269. ISBN 9780190628611. Archived from the original on 2022-10-07. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Preventing Norovirus Infection". CDC. 5 May 2017. Archived from the original on 9 December 2017. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Norovirus – Treatment". CDC. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 "Norovirus Worldwide". CDC. 15 December 2017. Archived from the original on 7 December 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Global Burden of Norovirus and Prospects for Vaccine Development" (PDF). CDC. August 2015. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 December 2017. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  8. Nguyen GT, Phan K, Teng I, Pu J, Watanabe T (October 2017). "A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of norovirus in cases of gastroenteritis in developing countries". Medicine. 96 (40): e8139. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000008139. PMC 5738000. PMID 28984764.
  9. Conly J, Johnston B (January 2003). "Norwalk virus – Off and running". The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 14 (1): 11–3. doi:10.1155/2003/702517. PMC 2094906. PMID 18159419.
  10. Dance, Amber (2017-11-09). "Norovirus: The Perfect Pathogen". Knowable Magazine. doi:10.1146/knowable-111017-093400. ISSN 2575-4459. Archived from the original on 2020-03-29. Retrieved 2018-05-15.