One World Trade Center
|One World Trade Center|
One World Trade Center, the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere
|Tallest in North America since 2013[I]|
|Preceded by||Willis Tower|
|Architectural style||Contemporary modern|
|Location||285 Fulton Street|
Manhattan, New York City
|Construction started||April 27, 2006|
|Construction stopped||May 10, 2013|
|Topped-out||May 10, 2013|
|Opened||November 3, 2014|
May 29, 2015 (One World Observatory)
|Cost||US$3.9 billiona |
|Architectural||1,776 ft (541.3 m)|
|Tip||1,792 ft (546.2 m)|
|Roof||1,368 ft (417.0 m)|
|Top floor||1,268 ft (386.5 m)|
|Observatory||1,254 ft (382.2 m)|
|Floor count||104 (+5 below ground floors)|
|Floor area||3,501,274 sq ft (325,279 m2)|
|Lifts/elevators||73, made by ThyssenKrupp.|
|Design and construction|
|Developer||Port Authority of New York and New Jersey|
|Structural engineer||WSP Cantor Seinuk|
|Other designers||Hill International, The Louis Berger Group|
|Main contractor||Tishman Construction|
The One World Trade Center (or Freedom Tower) is the main building of the new World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The building is 1,776 feet tall and is designed by David Childs of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. Since late 2013, it is the tallest building in the United States. It opened in late 2014. It is mostly used for offices. People can view the city from an observatory near the top.
Construction[change | change source]
In March 1965, the Port Authority began acquiring property at the World Trade Center site. The Ajax Wrecking and Lumber Corporation was hired for the demolition work, which began on March 21, 1965 to clear the site for construction of the World Trade Center.
|1968||Construction began on the North Tower.|
|1970||The topping out ceremony of the North Tower.|
Destruction[change | change source]
On September 11, 2001, Islamist terrorists hijacked American Airlines Flight 11 and crashed it into the northern side of the North Tower at 8:46:40 a.m., the aircraft striking between the 93rd and 99th floors. The damage caused to the North Tower by Flight 11 destroyed any means of escape from above the impact zone, killing 1,344 people. The fire caused steel structural elements, already weakened from the plane impact, to fail. The North Tower collapsed at 10:28 a.m., after burning for approximately 102 minutes.
Reconstruction[change | change source]
Over the following years, plans were created for the reconstruction of the World Trade Center. Reconstruction of One World Trade Center was halted until 2006. The building reached ground level on May 17, 2008, and was topped out on May 10, 2013. One World Trade Center opened to tenants on November 3, 2014, and One World Observatory opened to the public on May 28, 2015.
|2004||Symbolic cornerstone of 1 WTC was placed in a ceremony.|
|2006||400 cubic yards (310 cubic meters) of concrete were poured onto the foundation of the One World Trade Center. A 30-foot (9.1 m) steel beam was welded onto the building's base on December 19, 2006.|
|2007||Second set of beams was welded to the top of the first set. Tishman Construction Corporation of New York completed a row of steel columns at the perimeter of the construction site. 1 WTC's footings and foundations were nearly complete.|
|2008||1 WTC had reached 25 feet (7.6 m) above street level. Collavino Construction poured an additional 520 cubic yards (400 m3) of concrete for the tower's concrete core.|
|2009||1 WTC had reached 105 feet (32 m) above street level. 1,200 cubic yards (920 m3) of concrete were poured to form parts of the street-level plaza. The tower set a 70 short tons (64,000 kilograms) piece of steel into place—the largest column installed yet at the building. Construction of the second floor was nearly complete.|
|2010||The last floor of 1 WTC's base was finished. The 45-degree octagon was installed, the building's steel frame had reached 26 floors. The cocoon system was also installed, marking the first time a cocoon safety system has been installed on a steel superstructure in the city. By October 2010, the tower's steel superstructure reached 48 stories.|
|2011||One World Trade Center had reached the 70th floor, the glass facade installation had reached the 45th floor, and concrete flooring had been installed up to the 63rd.|
|2012||One World Trade Center Topped out at roof level. Construction crews began installing parapet steel at the top of the tower. Concrete flooring had been completed to the 93rd story of the tower, One World Trade Center had risen to the 105th floor and glass installation was at the 82nd floor. The first of nine pieces of the spire was lifted to the 104th floor. Another nine smaller pieces were trucked in from Montreal.|
|2013||The last two sections of the building's spire were installed making it the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, and the 3rd tallest building in the world.
Base cladding began. Work began on the construction of the plaza surrounding the building.
|2014||The exterior elevator removed. Base cladding was finished. Interior work was finished.|
Height controversy[change | change source]
On November 8, 2013, architects in Chicago and New York City began debating about the height of the One World Trade Center and the Willis Tower. They were saying that there was a possibility that the Willis Tower is taller than the One World Trade Center.
On November 12, a committee agreed that the antenna on top is part of the building, so One World Trade Center is taller than the Willis Tower.
References[change | change source]
- Smith, Aaron. "One World Trade Center, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, is open for business". money.cnn.com. CNN Money. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
- "One World Trade Center Observatory Opens to Public". usnews.com. U.S. News. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
- Brown, Eliot (January 30, 2012). "Tower Rises, And So Does Its Price Tag". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 16, 2015.
- Stanglin, Doug (May 10, 2013). "Spire permanently installed on WTC tower". USA Today. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
- "One World Trade Center – The Skyscraper Center". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. September 11, 2015. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
- "One World Trade Center to retake title of NYC's tallest building". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. April 29, 2012. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- "Office Leasing". One World Trade Center. Retrieved November 3, 2014.
- "Elevating One World Trade Center". ThyssenKrupp Elevator. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
- "One World Trade Center". Silverstein Properties. September 16, 2015. Retrieved September 16, 2015.
- "The Louis Berger Group and Hill International to Provide Program Management Services for Downtown Restoration Program and WTC Transportation Hub". Hill International, Inc. August 13, 2004. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
- One World Trade Center at SkyscraperPage. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
- "One World Trade Center taller than Willis Tower". Examiner.com. Retrieved November 12, 2013.