One World Trade Center

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One World Trade Center
One World Trade Center cropped2.jpg
One World Trade Center, the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere
One World Trade Center is located in Lower Manhattan
One World Trade Center
Location within Lower Manhattan
One World Trade Center is located in Manhattan
One World Trade Center
One World Trade Center (Manhattan)
One World Trade Center is located in New York City
One World Trade Center
One World Trade Center (New York City)
Alternative names
  • 1 WTC
  • Freedom Tower (pre-2009)
Record height
Tallest in North America since 2013[I]
Preceded byWillis Tower
General information
  • Office
  • Observation
  • Communication
Architectural styleContemporary modern
Location285 Fulton Street
Manhattan, New York City
Coordinates40°42′46.8″N 74°0′48.6″W / 40.713000°N 74.013500°W / 40.713000; -74.013500Coordinates: 40°42′46.8″N 74°0′48.6″W / 40.713000°N 74.013500°W / 40.713000; -74.013500
Construction startedApril 27, 2006
Construction stoppedMay 10, 2013[4]
Topped-outMay 10, 2013
OpenedNovember 3, 2014[1]
May 29, 2015 (One World Observatory)[2]
CostUS$3.9 billiona[3]
Architectural1,776 ft (541.3 m)[5]
Tip1,792 ft (546.2 m)[5]
Roof1,368 ft (417.0 m)[6]
Top floor1,268 ft (386.5 m)[5]
Observatory1,254 ft (382.2 m)[5]
Technical details
Floor count104 (+5 below ground floors)[5][7]
Floor area3,501,274 sq ft (325,279 m2)[5]
Lifts/elevators73,[5] made by ThyssenKrupp.[8]
Design and construction
DeveloperPort Authority of New York and New Jersey[5]
Structural engineerWSP Cantor Seinuk
Other designersHill International, The Louis Berger Group[10]
Main contractorTishman Construction
a. April 2012 estimate.
b. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill.

The One World Trade Center (or Freedom Tower) is the main building of the new World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The building is 1,776 feet tall and is designed by David Childs of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. Since late 2013, it is the tallest building in the United States. It opened in late 2014. It is mostly used for offices. People can view the city from an observatory near the top.

Construction[change | change source]

In March 1965, the Port Authority began acquiring property at the World Trade Center site. The Ajax Wrecking and Lumber Corporation was hired for the demolition work, which began on March 21, 1965 to clear the site for construction of the World Trade Center.

Year Changes Image
1968 Construction began on the North Tower.
World Trade Center under construction in May 1971
1970 The topping out ceremony of the North Tower.

Destruction[change | change source]

The scene just after United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower; a fireball rises high.

On September 11, 2001, Islamist terrorists hijacked American Airlines Flight 11 and crashed it into the northern side of the North Tower at 8:46:40 a.m., the aircraft striking between the 93rd and 99th floors. The damage caused to the North Tower by Flight 11 destroyed any means of escape from above the impact zone, killing 1,344 people. The fire caused steel structural elements, already weakened from the plane impact, to fail. The North Tower collapsed at 10:28 a.m., after burning for approximately 102 minutes.

Reconstruction[change | change source]

Over the following years, plans were created for the reconstruction of the World Trade Center. Reconstruction of One World Trade Center was halted until 2006. The building reached ground level on May 17, 2008, and was topped out on May 10, 2013. One World Trade Center opened to tenants on November 3, 2014, and One World Observatory opened to the public on May 28, 2015.

Year Changes Image
2004 Symbolic cornerstone of 1 WTC was placed in a ceremony.
2006 400 cubic yards (310 cubic meters) of concrete were poured onto the foundation of the One World Trade Center. A 30-foot (9.1 m) steel beam was welded onto the building's base on December 19, 2006.
Concrete construction, as of October 7, 2006
2007 Second set of beams was welded to the top of the first set. Tishman Construction Corporation of New York completed a row of steel columns at the perimeter of the construction site. 1 WTC's footings and foundations were nearly complete.
Steel installation, as of March 26, 2007
Foundation construction, as of October 7, 2007
2008 1 WTC had reached 25 feet (7.6 m) above street level. Collavino Construction poured an additional 520 cubic yards (400 m3) of concrete for the tower's concrete core.
Construction progress, as of January 21, 2008
Concrete foundation, as of April 20, 2008
Construction progress, as of September 10, 2008
2009 1 WTC had reached 105 feet (32 m) above street level. 1,200 cubic yards (920 m3) of concrete were poured to form parts of the street-level plaza. The tower set a 70 short tons (64,000 kilograms) piece of steel into place—the largest column installed yet at the building. Construction of the second floor was nearly complete.
One WTC above street level, as of February 28, 2009
One WTC viewed from street level on July 29, 2009
The final lobby column being installed on October 31, 2009
Construction reaching the 17th floor, as of December 10, 2009
2010 The last floor of 1 WTC's base was finished. The 45-degree octagon was installed, the building's steel frame had reached 26 floors. The cocoon system was also installed, marking the first time a cocoon safety system has been installed on a steel superstructure in the city. By October 2010, the tower's steel superstructure reached 48 stories.
View from the World Financial Center, March 8, 2010
Construction progress, as of April 2010
View from Church Street, May 11, 2010, as steel tops the 24th floor.
View from the PATH station entrance, June 10, 2010, as steel tops the 26th floor.
Construction work as of July 28, 2010, as steel reached the 30th floor.
Construction as of September 28, 2010, as steel reached the 42nd floor.
One World Trade Center on November 10, 2010, reaching the 48th floor.
December 19, 2010, after steel reached the 52nd floor; the halfway point.
2011 One World Trade Center had reached the 70th floor, the glass facade installation had reached the 45th floor, and concrete flooring had been installed up to the 63rd.
As of January 13, 2011, with the glass facade clearly visible.
View from West Street as of February 5, 2011. 7 World Trade Center is visible in the background on the right. Steel tops the 56th floor.
March 19, 2011, as construction reaches the 60th floor.
Progress as of May 2, 2011, Steel is up to the 64th floor and glass is at the 36th floor.
Progress as of September 17, 2011. Steel is at 83 floors, glass at 58 floors and concrete at the 72nd floor.
Progress as of October 13, 2011. Steel is at 86 floors, glass is at 60 floors and concrete is at 76 floors.
Progress as of November 15, 2011. Steel is past 89 floors, glass is at the 63rd floor, and concrete is past the 80th floor.
Progress as of December 23, 2011, pictured from the corner of Liberty and Greenwich Street. Steel is up to 92 floors, glass is up to 68 floors, and concrete is up to 84 floors.
2012 One World Trade Center Topped out at roof level. Construction crews began installing parapet steel at the top of the tower. Concrete flooring had been completed to the 93rd story of the tower, One World Trade Center had risen to the 105th floor and glass installation was at the 82nd floor. The first of nine pieces of the spire was lifted to the 104th floor. Another nine smaller pieces were trucked in from Montreal.
One World Trade Center on January 28, 2012
One World Trade Center on March 13, 2012
One World Trade Center on April 13, 2012. Steel is up to 100 floors, and glass is at 71.
One World Trade Center as of May 27, 2012
One World Trade Center under construction on July 24, 2012
One World Trade Center on August 20, 2012
One World Trade Center on November 4, 2012
2013 The last two sections of the building's spire were installed making it the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, and the 3rd tallest building in the world.

Base cladding began. Work began on the construction of the plaza surrounding the building.

One World Trade Center on February 22, 2013. The first two sections of the spire now in place.
One World Trade Center on May 1, 2013. Windows now reaching the top of the building.
The spire beacon was installed on May 10, 2013
One WTC as of June 1, 2013
2014 The exterior elevator removed. Base cladding was finished. Interior work was finished.
One WTC as of January 22, 2014

Height controversy[change | change source]

On November 8, 2013, architects in Chicago and New York City began debating about the height of the One World Trade Center and the Willis Tower. They were saying that there was a possibility that the Willis Tower is taller than the One World Trade Center.

On November 12, a committee agreed that the antenna on top is part of the building, so One World Trade Center is taller than the Willis Tower.[12]

References[change | change source]

  1. Smith, Aaron. "One World Trade Center, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, is open for business". CNN Money. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
  2. "One World Trade Center Observatory Opens to Public". U.S. News. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
  3. Brown, Eliot (January 30, 2012). "Tower Rises, And So Does Its Price Tag". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 16, 2015.
  4. Stanglin, Doug (May 10, 2013). "Spire permanently installed on WTC tower". USA Today. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 "One World Trade Center – The Skyscraper Center". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. September 11, 2015. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
  6. "One World Trade Center to retake title of NYC's tallest building". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. April 29, 2012. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
  7. "Office Leasing". One World Trade Center. Retrieved November 3, 2014.
  8. "Elevating One World Trade Center". ThyssenKrupp Elevator. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
  9. "One World Trade Center". Silverstein Properties. September 16, 2015. Retrieved September 16, 2015.
  10. "The Louis Berger Group and Hill International to Provide Program Management Services for Downtown Restoration Program and WTC Transportation Hub". Hill International, Inc. August 13, 2004. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  11. One World Trade Center at SkyscraperPage. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
  12. "One World Trade Center taller than Willis Tower". Retrieved November 12, 2013.

Other websites[change | change source]