Research and development

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Research and development (R&D) refers to a wide range of activities by businesses, governments and academic institutions designed to gather knowledge and test new ideas.[1] This often leads to the development of new products or new ways of doing things.[2] R&D generally has three main activities.[3] These are: basic research, applied research and development.[3] Basic research is aimed at getting new knowledge with no immediate use or purpose in mind.[3] Applied research is just the opposite. It is research for a definite purpose or product.[3] Development has more to do with adding features to a product. Often, development is a process of eliminating all but the best idea to arrive at the best solution.[4] Basic and applied research costs are often written off as expenses while the costs of development are added to the cost of the product.[5] R&D often results in owning intellectual property such as patents.[5] In Europe, R&D is called research and technical/technological development (RTD).[2]

In 2015, Volkswagen was the world's leading spender in R&D[6]}}

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