Samudragupta

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[1]Samudragupta (Gupta script: Sa-mu-dra-gu-pta, r. c. (350-375 CE) was a ruler of the Gupta Empire of Ancient India. He was a son of the emperor Chandragupta I and the Licchavi princess Kumaradevi. He greatly expanded his dynasty's political power.

The Allahabad Pillar inscription, a prashasti (eulogy) was written by his courtier Harishena. It told of his many military conquests. It suggests that he defeated several kings of northern India. Also, that he added their territories to his empire. He also marched along the south-eastern coast of India. He advanced to move as far as the Pallava kingdom. In addition, he subjugated several frontier kingdoms and tribal oligarchies.

Samudragupta performed the Ashvamedha sacrifice to prove his imperial sovereignty. According to his coins, he remained undefeated. His gold coins and inscriptions suggest that he was an accomplished poet. He also played music. His expansionist policy was continued by his son Chandragupta II. The primary source for the military campaigns of Samudragupta is the Allahabad Pillar Inscription, which was inscribed during his reign and provides a general overview of his military conquests. Other historical sources, such as the Puranas and the works of Chinese and Greek historians, also provide some information about Samudragupta's reign, but do not provide a comprehensive list of all his military campaigns.

Now list for very minor camapaigns . It is not possible to provide an exhaustive list of all the battles, skirmishes, and campaigns fought by Samudragupta, as not all of them may be documented in historical records. However, here are some of the minor ones:

Ashmaka campaign

Kataka campaign

Maharashtrian campaign

Kosala campaign

Kalinga campaign

Davaka campaign

Nishada campaign

Keralaputra campaign

Mahendra mountain campaign

Avanti campaign

Surashtra campaign

Vanga campaign

Pundra campaign

Tamralipta campaign

Nepal campaign

Kamarupa campaign

Hunas campaign

Parvata campaign

Kira campaign

Vakataka campaign

Abhira campaign

Malava campaign

Gurjara campaign

Kshudraka campaign

Sakala campaign

Vatsa campaign

Bhoja campaign

Matsya campaign

Saurashtra campaign

Karttika campaign

Kirat campaign

Khasa campaign

Mekala campaign

Vanavasi campaign

Kanchi campaign

Kuntala campaign

Dravida campaign

Pandya campaign

Western Kshatrapa campaign

Andhra campaign

Trigarta campaign

Kaliṅga border campaign

Western Kalinga campaign

Magadha campaign

Jiradharini campaign

Yaudheya campaign

Arjunayana campaign

Ashwamedha campaign

Kosambi campaign

Panchala campaign

Mallas campaign

Madra campaign

Kuru campaign

Kekeya campaign

Utsava campaign

Malwa campaign

Shaka campaign

Saka campaign

Udumbara campaign

Bhairavapura campaign

Pragjyotisha campaign

Pundra-Vardhana campaign

Kambhoja campaign

Kirman campaign

Tuhara campaign

Kamboja campaign

Rishika campaign

Sibi campaign

Suvira campaign

Kuru-Panchala campaign

Kashmira campaign

Nepal campaign

Rishikulya campaign

Sindhu-Sauvira campaign

Shalva campaign

Andhaka campaign

Vaijayanti campaign

Kanchi campaign

Karavira campaign

Kodumba campaign

Kalinga campaign

Andhraka campaign

Mekala campaign

Vatapi campaign

Cheras campaign

Gauda campaign

Magadha campaign

Koshala campaign

Panchala campaign

Vatsa campaign

Dandabhukti campaign

Vanga campaign

Pundra campaign

Tamralipta campaign

Kamarupa campaign

Nepal campaign

Kirata campaign

Mahakantara campaign

Mlechchha campaign

Huna campaign

These are 100minor campaigns

And

MAJOR BATTLES OF SAMUDRAGUPTA:

Campaign against the Nagas of Padmavati

Campaign against the Kuru kingdom

Campaign against the Malavas

Campaign against the Yaudheyas

Campaign against the Arjunayanas

Campaign against the Madras

Campaign against the Abhiras

Campaign against the Kanchis

Campaign against the Pandyas

Campaign against the Cholas

Campaign against the Kalachuris

Campaign against the Kamarupa kingdom

Campaign against the Hunas.


Often these are considered as battles where samudragupta was never defeated however there may be battles excluding these where he may have lost and we don't know the Source for this yet.

Extent of the empire[change | change source]

Samudragupta's empire included a core territory in northern India. It was directly controlled by the emperor. Besides, it included some monarchical and tribal tributary states.[2] Historian R. C. Majumdar theorizes that Samudragupta directly controlled an area extending from the Ravi River (Punjab) in the west to the Brahmaputra River (Bengal and Assam) in the east, and from the Himalayan foothills in the north to the Vindhya hills in the south. The south-western boundary of his territory roughly followed a line drawn from present-day Karnal to Bhilsa.[3]

Empire of Gupta dynasty at 375 AD during Samudragupta's rule

In the south, Samudragupta's empire definitely included Eran in present-day Madhya Pradesh. On there, his inscription has been found.[4] The Allahabad Pillar inscription suggests that he reached early up to Kanchipuram in the south.[5] However, since the claims in the Allahabad Pillar inscription are from a royal eulogy, they must be treated with danger.[6]

Personality[change | change source]

Samudragupta's coins show him as a tall, strong man.[7] The Allahabad Pillar inscription presents him as a compassionate ruler. It was stated that his "mind was engaged in providing relief to the low, the poor, the helpless, and the afflicted".[8] It also stated that he reinstated many royal families which had lost their kingdoms, including the kings defeated by him.[9] At the same time, it states that he maintained strict administration ("Prachanda shasana").[10]

The inscription states that Samudragupta became famous among the learned people because of his poetical works. He earned the epithet "king of poets".[9] This suggests that he composed some poetical works. But none of these works now survive.[9]

The inscription also says that Samudragupta embarrassed the celestial musician Tumburu and Narada by his lovely performances of music. [10] Samudragupta's musical talents are also corroborated by his gold coins which depict him playing a veena. [9]

The inscription praises Samudragupta's wisdom and intellect.[9] It was stated that he was smarter than the preceptor of the Lord of the Gods (that is, Brihaspati).[10]

References[change | change source]

  1. Harrington, John W.; Bora, Samudragupta (2018), "Autism Spectrum Disorder", Integrative Medicine, Elsevier, pp. 64–73.e4, doi:10.1016/b978-0-323-35868-2.00008-6, ISBN 978-0-323-35868-2, retrieved 2023-03-23
  2. R. C. Majumdar 1981, p. 22.
  3. R. C. Majumdar 1981, p. 23, 27.
  4. R. C. Majumdar 1981, p. 23.
  5. Ashvini Agrawal 1989, p. 112.
  6. K. Chakrabarti 1996, p. 185.
  7. Tej Ram Sharma 1989, p. 95.
  8. Tej Ram Sharma 1989, p. 91, 94.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 R. C. Majumdar 1981, p. 31.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Tej Ram Sharma 1989, p. 94.

Bibliography[change | change source]

Other websites[change | change source]