Saturnalia tupiniquim

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Saturnalia tupiniquim
Temporal range: Upper Triassic, 223.23 Ma
Saturnalia SIZE.png
Estimated size of Saturnalia, compared to a human.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Superorder: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Sauropodomorpha
Family: Guaibasauridae
Subfamily: Saturnaliinae
Genus: Saturnalia
Type species
Saturnalia tupiniquim
Langer et al., 1999

Saturnalia is an extinct genus of basal prosauropod dinosaur from the Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil.[1] The deposits are dated to the early Upper Triassic, about 225 million years ago (mya). The dinsaur grew to about 1.5 meters (5 ft) long.[1]

Phylogeny[change | change source]

The primitive nature of Saturnalia, and its mixture of sauropodomorph and theropod characteristics,[2] has made it difficult to classify.

The first (1999) description of the genus assigned it to the Sauropodomorpha.[1] However, in a 2003 paper, Langer noted that features of its skull and hand were more similar to the sister group of sauropodomorphs, the theropods, and that Saturnalia could be considered a member of the sauropodomorph "stem-lineage", rather than a true member of that group.[3]

José Bonaparte and colleagues, in a 2007 study, found Saturnalia to be very similar to the primitive saurischian Guaibasaurus. Bonaparte placed the two in the same family, Guaibasauridae. Like Langer, Bonaparte found that these forms may have been primitive sauropodomorphs, or an assemblage of forms close to the common ancestor of the sauropodomorphs and theropods. Overall, Bonaparte found that both Saturnalia and Guaibasaurus were more theropod-like than prosauropod-like.[4] However, all more recent cladistic analyses found it to be a very basal sauropodomorph,[5][6][7][8][9]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Langer, M.C; Abdala F; Richter M. and Benton M. 1999. A sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Upper Triassic (Carnian) of southern Brazil. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, 329: 511-517.
  2. "basal sauropodomorph" and "prosauropod" mean the same thing.
  3. Langer M.C. 2003. The pelvic and hind limb anatomy of the stem-sauropodomorph Saturnalia tupiniquim (late Triassic, Brazil). PaleoBios, 23(2).
  4. Bonaparte J.F. et al 2007. A new specimen of Guaibasaurus candelariensis (basal Saurischia) from the late Triassic Caturrita Formation of southern Brazil. Historical Biology, 19(1): 73-82.
  5. Yates, Adam M. (2007). "The first complete skull of the Triassic dinosaur Melanorosaurus Haughton (Sauropodomorpha: Anchisauria)". In Barrett & Batten (eds.), Evolution and Palaeobiology 77: 9–55. ISBN 978-1-4051-6933-2. 
  6. Pol D., Garrido A., Cerda I.A. (2011). "A new Sauropodomorph dinosaur from the early Jurassic of Patagonia and the origin and evolution of the Sauropod-type sacrum". PLoS ONE 6 (1): e14572. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014572. PMC 3027623. PMID 21298087. http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0014572. 
  7. Cecilia Apaldetti, Ricardo N. Martinez, Oscar A. Alcober and Diego Pol (2011). "A new basal Sauropodomorph (Dinosauria: Saurischia) from Quebrada del Barro Formation (Marayes-El Carrizal Basin), Northwestern Argentina". PLoS ONE 6 (11): e26964. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026964. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0026964. 
  8. Ezcurra M. D. (2010). "A new early dinosaur (Saurischia: Sauropodomorpha) from the late Triassic of Argentina: a reassessment of dinosaur origin and phylogeny". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 8 (3): 371–425. doi:10.1080/14772019.2010.484650. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a924950072~frm=titlelink. 
  9. Novas, Fernando E. et al (2011). "New dinosaur species from the Upper Triassic Upper Maleri and Lower Dharmaram formations of central India". Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 101 (3-4): 333–349. doi:10.1017/S1755691011020093.