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Scalars are simple numbers. They are used for measuring things. Many things can be measured, and the measure can be explained by only giving the number.

Suppose we are measuring a rod. We could give the measured length as 2 metres or 3 cm etc. depending on the length of the rod under observation. Here only the figure 2 or 3 along with the unit of measure is enough to transmit information about the rod.

Other examples of scalars are:

i.e. mass is measured by scalars, distances are measured by scalars.

Scalars are also used as a term outside a matrix when doing matrix multiplication.

The other family of measurement falls under the category of vectors.