Settler colonialism

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"Indian Land For Sale" by the United States Department of the Interior (1911)

When foreign people move and settle down on a piece of land that is already occupied by other people this is called settler colonialism. It is a form of colonialism.The people that were there before are called indigenous, or native. The new people will take away the land of the people who were already there, and replace them with what is called a settler society.[1][2] Many people say that this is like a genocide.[3] There are different ways in which this can be done,ranging from violent depopulation of the previous inhabitants to less deadly means, such as assimilation or recognition of Indigenous identity within a colonial framework.[4]

Like other forms of colonialism, this kind is organized or supported by a central authority, for example a kingdom or empire.[1] Settler colonialism contrasts with exploitation colonialism, which results from an economic policy of conquering territory to exploit its population as cheap or free labor and its natural resources as raw material. In this way, settler colonialism lasts indefinitely, except in the rare event of complete evacuation or settler decolonization.[4] Political theorist Mahmoud Mamdani suggested that settlers could never succeed in their effort to become native, and therefore the only way to end settler colonialism was to erase the political significance of the settler–native dichotomy.[5]

During the 1960s, settlement and colonization were seen as separate phenomena from colonialism. Settlement endeavors were seen as taking place in empty areas, downplaying the Indigenous inhabitants. Later on in the 1970s and 1980s, settler colonialism was seen as bringing high living standards in contrast to the failed political systems associated with classical colonialism. Beginning in the mid-1990s, the field of settler colonial studies was established.[6] It is different from Indigenous studies but connected to it.[7] Patrick Wolfe theorized settler colonialism as a structure (rather than an event) focused on the elimination rather than exploitation of the native population. He distinguished it from classical colonialism. Wolfe also argued that settler colonialism was centered on the control of land and that it continued after the closing of the frontier. His approach was defining for the field, but has been challenged by other scholars on the basis that many situations involve a combination of elimination and exploitation.[5]

Settler colonial studies has often focused on British colonies in North America, Australia and New Zealand, which are close to the complete, prototypical form of settler colonialism, but is also applied to other cases including British Kenya, the Canary Islands, French Algeria, Generalplan Ost, German South West Africa, Hokkaido, Ireland, Israel/Palestine, Italian Libya and East Africa, Korea, Latin America, Liberia, Manchukuo, Posen and West Prussia, Rhodesia and South Africa.[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][5]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 LeFevre, Tate. "Settler Colonialism". Tate A. LeFevre. Retrieved 19 October 2017. Though often conflated with colonialism more generally, settler colonialism is a distinct imperial formation. Both colonialism and settler colonialism are premised on exogenous domination, but only settler colonialism seeks to replace the original population of the colonized territory with a new society of settlers (usually from the colonial metropole).
  2. Compare: Veracini, Lorenzo (2010). Settler Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview. Cambridge Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies Series (reprint ed.). Basingstoke: Springer. p. 17. ISBN 9780230299191. Retrieved 2019-01-29. In this chapter, I interpret the settler colonial situation as primarily premised on the irruption into a specific locale of a sovereign collective of settlers.
  3. Short, Damien (2016). Redefining Genocide: Settler Colonialism, Social Death and Ecocide. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-84813-546-8.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Wolfe, Patrick (2006). "Settler colonialism and the elimination of the native". Journal of Genocide Research. 8 (4): 387–409. doi:10.1080/14623520601056240. S2CID 143873621.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Englert, Sai (2020). "Settlers, Workers, and the Logic of Accumulation by Dispossession". Antipode. 52 (6): 1647–1666. doi:10.1111/anti.12659. S2CID 225643194.
  6. Veracini, Lorenzo (2013). "'Settler Colonialism': Career of a Concept". The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. 41 (2): 313–333. doi:10.1080/03086534.2013.768099. S2CID 159666130.
  7. Shoemaker, Nancy (1 October 2015). "A Typology of Colonialism | Perspectives on History". American Historical Association. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  8. Adhikari, Mohamed (7 September 2017). "Europe's First Settler Colonial Incursion into Africa: The Genocide of Aboriginal Canary Islanders". African Historical Review. 49 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1080/17532523.2017.1336863. S2CID 165086773. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  9. Adhikari, Mohamed (25 July 2022). Destroying to Replace: Settler Genocides of Indigenous Peoples. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company. pp. 1–32. ISBN 978-1647920548.
  10. Mushtaq, Samreen; Mudasir, Amin (16 October 2021). "'We will memorise our home': exploring settler colonialism as an interpretive framework for Kashmir". Third World Quarterly. 42 (12): 3012–3029. doi:10.1080/01436597.2021.1984877. S2CID 244607271. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  11. Raman, Anita D. (2004). "Of Rivers and Human Rights: The Northern Areas, Pakistan's forgotten colony in Jammu and Kashmir". International Journal on Minority and Group Rights. 11 (1/2): 187–228. doi:10.1163/157181104323383929.
  12. Barclay, Fiona; Chopin, Charlotte Ann; Evans, Martin (12 January 2017). "Introduction: settler colonialism and French Algeria". Settler Colonial Studies. 8 (2): 115–130. doi:10.1080/2201473X.2016.1273862. S2CID 151527670. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  13. Veracini, Lorenzo (25 March 2013). "'Settler Colonialism': Career of a Concept". Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. 41 (2): 313–333. doi:10.1080/03086534.2013.768099. S2CID 159666130. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  14. Ertola, Emanuele (15 March 2016). "'Terra promessa': migration and settler colonialism in Libya, 1911–1970". Settler Colonial Studies. 7 (3): 340–353. doi:10.1080/2201473X.2016.1153251. S2CID 164009698. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  15. Veracini, Lorenzo (Winter 2018). "Italian Colonialism through a Settler Colonial Studies Lens". Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History. 19 (3). doi:10.1353/cch.2018.0023. S2CID 165512037. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  16. Lu, Sidney Xu (June 2019). "Eastward Ho! Japanese Settler Colonialism in Hokkaido and the Making of Japanese Migration to the American West, 1869–1888". The Journal of Asian Studies. 78 (3): 521–547. doi:10.1017/S0021911819000147. S2CID 197847093. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  17. Uchida, Jun (3 March 2014). Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876–1945. Vol. 337. Harvard University Asia Center. doi:10.2307/j.ctt1x07x37. ISBN 978-0674492028. JSTOR j.ctt1x07x37.
  18. Lerp, Dörte (11 October 2013). "Farmers to the Frontier: Settler Colonialism in the Eastern Prussian Provinces and German Southwest Africa". Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. 41 (4): 567–583. doi:10.1080/03086534.2013.836361. S2CID 159707103. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  19. Browning, Christopher R. (8 February 2022). "Yehuda Bauer, the Concepts of Holocaust and Genocide, and the Issue of Settler Colonialism". The Journal of Holocaust Research. 36 (1): 30–38. doi:10.1080/25785648.2021.2012985. S2CID 246652960. Retrieved 30 April 2022.