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Henjunaha Lairoulembi (Old Manipuri: Hensunaha Lailoulempi) is a legendary folk tale of Ancient Moirang, a province in Ancient Manipur (Antique Kangleipak). It is a love story of Henjunaha and his lady love Lairoulembi, which is the second line of reincarnation in the legend.[1]

Person

Rebecca Sealfon

Rebecca Sealfon
Born1988
NationalityAmerican
Alma materColumbia University
OccupationAuthoress, Google Software Engineer
OrganizationQuora, Medium and Patreon
Known for
MovementIsraeli Palestinian peace
FamilySealfon family

Rebecca Sealfon is an American authoress and social activist for the Israeli Palestinian topics. She has won the 70th Scripps Howard National Spelling Bee Competition in the year 1997, when she was only 13, by spenlling the word euonym. Remarkably, she was the last New Yorker to win the contest till now.[2][3][4][5] Presently, she is also active in writing for Judaism related topics and is a top writer of Quora in the year 2018.

King 6

Khuyoi Tompok

Khuyoi Tompok
Inventor of time measuring device and drum
Monarchy154 AD-263 AD (1551 MF-1661 MF)
Coronation154 AD (1551 MF)
PredecessorNongda Lairen Pakhangba
SuccessorTaothingmang
IssueYoimongba, Taothingmang and Lairoklembi
Full name
Meitingu Khuyoi Tompok
Era name and dates
Ancient Manipur: 154 AD-263 AD (1551 MF-1661 MF)
RoyaltyNingthouja dynasty (Mangang dynasty)
FatherNongda Lairen Pakhangba
MotherLaisana
ReligionMeiteism of Sanamahism
OccupationRuler of Ancient Manipur (Antique Kangleipak)

Khuyoi Tompok (154 AD-263 AD) was a ruler of Ancient Manipur (Antique Kangleipak) kingdom.[6] He was the only son and the successor of Emperor Nongda Lairen Pakhangba (Old Manipuri: Nongta Lailen Pakhangpa) and Empress Laisana.[7][8] It was during his era that the time measuring device (pung/poong) and a traditional drum (a musical instrument) (pung/poong) were invented in the kingdom for the first time.[9][10][11][12][13] Various experments were carried out for the perfection of the traditional drum. At first, deer skin was used, secondly, tiger skin and thirdly, cow skin was used in making the drum.[14] The Chinglon Laaihui accounts for his expedition to find out metal ores, especially gold and silver ores in the kingdom.[15][16] He is one of the nine kings who is associated with the design of a royal flag.[17]

King 5

Kaksuba

Ningthou Kaksuba
1329 BC
Monarchy1329 BC-1297 BC (69 MF-101 MF)
Coronation1329 BC
PredecessorMaliyapham Palcha
SuccessorNingthou Tonkonba
BornNingthou Kaksupa
Era name and dates
Ancient Manipur: 1329 BC-1297 BC (69 MF-101 MF)
ReligionMeiteism of Sanamahism
OccupationKing of Ancient Manipur (Antique Kangleipak)

Tonkonba

Ningthou Tonkonba
1297 BC
Monarchy1297 BC-1276 BC (101 MF-122 MF)
Coronation1297 BC
PredecessorNingthou Kaksuba
SuccessorNingthou Pottingkoi
BornNingthou Tonkonpa
Era name and dates
Ancient Manipur: 1297 BC-1276 BC (101 MF-122 MF)
ReligionMeiteism of Sanamahism
OccupationKing of Ancient Manipur (Antique Kangleipak)

Pottingkoi

Ningthou Pottingkoi
1276 BC
Monarchy1276 BC-1251 BC (122 MF-147 MF)
Coronation1276 BC
PredecessorNingthou Tonkonba
SuccessorNingthou Laanbicha
Era name and dates
Ancient Manipur: 1276 BC-1251 BC (122 MF-147 MF)
ReligionMeiteism of Sanamahism
OccupationKing of Ancient Manipur (Antique Kangleipak)

Laanbichaa

Ningthou Laanbichaa
1251 BC
Monarchy1251 BC-1229 BC (147 MF-169 MF)
Coronation1251 BC
PredecessorNingthou Pottingkoi
SuccessorNingthou Sapaiba
BornNingthou Laanpichaa
Era name and dates
Ancient Manipur: 1251 BC-1229 BC (147 MF-169 MF)
ReligionMeiteism of Sanamahism
OccupationKing of Ancient Manipur (Antique Kangleipak)

Sapaiba

Ningthou Sapaiba
1229 BC
Monarchy1229 BC-1209 BC (169 MF-189 MF)
Coronation1229 BC
PredecessorNingthou Laanbicha
SuccessorNingthou Puthiba
BornNingthou Sapaipa
Era name and dates
Ancient Manipur: 1229 BC-1209 BC (169 MF-189 MF)
ReligionMeiteism of Sanamahism
OccupationKing of Ancient Manipur (Antique Kangleipak)

Puthiba

Ningthou Puthiba
1209 BC
Monarchy1209 BC-1199 BC (189 MF-199 MF)
Coronation1209 BC
PredecessorNingthou Sapaiba
BornNingthou Puthipa
Era name and dates
Ancient Manipur: 1209 BC-1199 BC (189 MF-199 MF)
ReligionMeiteism of Sanamahism
OccupationKing of Ancient Manipur (Antique Kangleipak)

King 4

Tangja Leela Pakhangba
The founder of Ancient Kangleipak kingdom
Monarchy1445 BC-1405 BC
Coronation1445 BC
HereditaryNingthou Kangba
BornTaang Chaa Lee La Paa Khangpa
IssueNingthou Kangba
Full name
Taangja Leelaa Paakhangba
Era name and dates
Ancient Manipur: 1445 BC-1405 BC
RoyaltyTang-Shang dynasty
ReligionPrimitive Meiteism of Sanamahism
OccupationKing of Ancient Kangleipak

Tangja Leela Pakhangba (Old Manipuri: Taang Chaa Lee La Paa Khangpa) (1445 BC-1405 BC) is the first king of Ancient Manipur (Antique Kangleipak) civilization.[18] He is the father of King Ningthou Kangba (1405 BC-1359 BC) and the grandfather of King Maliyapham Palcha (Koi Koi) (1359 BC-1329 BC).[19][20] He is the consort of Queen Sinbee Leima, the daughter of the chief of the Leihou tribe. The history of Manipur accounts for many kings with the name "Pakhangba", more or less having reference to God Pakhangba, among which "Tangja Leela Pakhangba" is one.[21][22]

King 3

Maliyapham Palcha
Inventor of the Meitei calendar
1359 BC
Monarchy1359 BC-1329 BC
Coronation1359 BC
PredecessorNingthou Kangba
SuccessorNingthou Kaksuba
BornKoi Koi
Full name
Mari Ya Fambal Cha
Era name and dates
Ancient Manipur: 1359 BC-1329 BC
FatherNingthou Kangba
MotherLeima Taritnu
ReligionMeiteism of Sanamahism
OccupationEmperor of Ancient Manipur

Maliyapham Palcha (1359 BC-1329 BC)[23], also known as Mari Ya Phambal Cha or Koi Koi, is a king of Ancient Manipur (Antique Kangleipak) kingdom.[24] He is the successor and one of the nine sons of King Ningthou Kangba (1405 BC-1359 BC) as evident in the Ningthou Kangbalon.[25][26] He ascended the throne at the age of twenty five and introduced a calendar system called the Mari-Fam or Maliyapham (later known as the Meitei calendar).[27]

King 2

Luwang Ningthou Punshiba
Solomon of Ancient Manipur
Monarchyca. 7th century AD
PredecessorKing Nongban Pombi Luwaoba
Era name and dates
Ancient Manipur: ca. 7th century AD
Regnal name
Luwang Punshiba
RoyaltyLuwang dynasty
FatherKing Nongban Pombi Luwaoba (according to legend)
MotherKoubru Namoinu (according to legend)
ReligionMeiteism of Sanamahism
OccupationKing of the Luwang dynasty

Luwang Ningthou Punshiba, shortly known as Luwang Punshiba, is a king of the Luwang dynasty of Ancient Manipur (Antique Kangleipak) civilization.[28][29] He is best known for his long life and outstanding wisdom in Manipuri folklore and history of Manipur.[30] According to the Hijan Hirao and the Hirol, he is the originator of the Hiyang Tannaba (boat race) with the invention of the Hiyang Hiren (traditional boat).[31][32][33] Some historians opined that Luwang Ningthou Punshiba is the fourth descendant of Poireiton and he has nine wives.[34] Regarding relationship with the Meitei kings of the Ningthouja dynasty, Punshiba gave training of state craft and the art of governance to Naothingkhong (663 AD-763 AD) when he was a prince.[35][36] Besides, the great grandson of Luwang Ningthou Punshiba (from his first wife) got married to Meitei king Naothingkhong's daughter.[37] However, he is also considered as a mythological divine figure in some literary works.[38][39]

Infobox

Henjunaha
Information
AliasesHensunaha
Gendermale
AffiliationMoirang Saiyon, Moirang Kangleirol, Meitei mythology, Meitei folklore, History of Manipur
RelativesLanglenhanba (Langlenhanpa) and Khoidom Leima (Khoitom Leima)
ReligionMeiteism of Sanamahism
OriginMoirang kingdom
HomeAncient Moirang

King

Ningthou Kangba

Ningthou Kangba
Inventor of the Polo game
1405 BC
Monarchy1405 BC - 1359 BC
Coronation1405 BC
PredecessorTangja Leela Pakhangba (1445 BC-1405 BC)
SuccessorMaliyapham Palcha (1359 BC- 1329 BC)
BornA cave in the Mount Koubru, 35 km from the north of Imphal
Burial
SpouseLeima Taritnu
FatherTangja Leela Pakhangba (1445 BC-1405 BC)
MotherSinbee Leima
ReligionMeiteism of Sanamahism
OccupationKing of Ancient Kangleipak kingdom

Ningthou Kangba (1405 BC-1359 BC) is a king of Ancient Manipur (Antique Kangleipak) kingdom.[40] He is known for being the inventor of Sagol Kangjei, the earliest form of the modern day polo sports.[41] He is the son of King Tangja Leela Pakhangba (1445 BC-1405 BC) and Queen Sinbee Leima. He is the consort of Queen Leima Taritnu, daughter of a king named Nongpok Ningthou of the Nongmaiching Hill in the east of Imphal.

According to the Ningthou Kangbalon, an ancient historical account of his family, King Kangba was born in a cave in the Mount Koubru in northern Manipur. Some historians opined that he belongs to the house of Salang Leishangthem dynasty.[42] However, some opined that he belongs to the house of the Khaba Nganba dynasty.[43]

In 2018, the Government of Manipur proclaimed that a heritage site will be developed in memory of the king in the Kangmong village, to promote tourism.[44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51]

Prehistory

Canto tallado talando un arbol.png

Comparing with other regions of the world, the development process of the archaeological work in Manipur is of recent times. The pioneering work in archeology was initiated by O. Kumar Singh. Before his presence, there was little information on the existence of the stone culture of Manipur.[52][53][54][55] O. Kumar Singh is of the view that "Pre-Historic people used to settle in the hills during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic (Hoabinhian) culture while Neolithic people lived in both hills and valley. They came down to the valley at least by about 2000 BC."[56][57] On the basis of the characters of the tool industry, the prehistory of Manipur is broadly classified into three periods.

Paleolithic period

Paleolithic period is the most primitive stone culture era. The Paleolithic period varies from place to place. In Manipur's neighbouring country Burma (Myanmar), the lower Paleolithic culture started from 750000 to 275000 BP. The Homo erectus (early Anyathian culture) began to settle on the banks of the Ayeyawaddy river in Burma in 750000 BCE. However, in case of Manipur, Paleolithic period started from 20,000 to 10,000 BCE.[58]

The stone culture of Paleolithic period were discovered from the five archeological sites, Songbu, Khangkhui, Machi, Nongpok Keithel Manbi and Singtom.

  • Songbu cave - Discovered in 1983, the rock type was found to be of fine quartzite sandstone. Stone tools discovered here are of two types, core tools and flake tools. The quantity of the flake tools (77.7℅) is much higher than those of core tools (22.2℅). The period of the existence of the stone culture at Songbu cave is fixed at 20,000 BP, belonging to the middle Paleolithic period.[59][60][61][62][63] At the time of exploration, the nine types of artifacts discovered are: (1) Flake - 1, (2) Knife - 1, (3) Blade Hake - 3, (4) Point - 1, (5) Borer scrapper - 1, (6) Hand axe - 1, (7) Spilt pebbles - 1.
  • Khangkhui cave - Located in Ukhrul district, the rock type found is of limestone Cretaceous origin. Discovered in 1969, there are four caves in the Khangkhui, two on the western slopes and two on the eastern slopes. Cave number 1 and 2 are on the western and number 3 and 4 on the eastern slopes. Numerous stalactites are found hanging on the roof of the cave. Exploratory work started in 1969-1972 but was abruptly stopped due to unfavorable circumstances. The tools discovered are of two types, limestone tools (96.4℅) and sandstone tools (2.2℅). Bone tools were significantly found in the cave no. 3, especially of Cervus, Sus and Bonvines. Though some suggest that the age of the earliest existence of the stone culture at the Khangkhui to be around 15,000 BC, T.C. Sharma opined it to be around 30,000 BCE, belonging to the Upper or Late Paleolithic period.[64][65][66]
  • Nongpok Keithelmanbi - Discovered the stone culture in 1982-1984, the Nongpok Keithelmanbi is an archeological site of Paleolithic period and post Paleolithic period (Mesolithic period).[67][68] The exploration site was classified into Locality-1 (Mesolithic), Locality-2 (Paleolithic) and Locality-3 (Paleolithic). The site is estimated to be of Upper or Late Paleolithic period.[69] Most artifacts are made of Quartzitic sandstone pebbles and few of chert.[70][71]
  • Singtom - Discovered in 1989 in Chandel district of Manipur, 16 stone tools relics are collected from the site. These are (1) hand axe, (2) work flat pebble with round edge, (3) flaked pebbles, (4) blade, (5) flake, (6) pebble striker, (7) split pebble, (8) waste flake. All these are made up of Quartzitic sandstone.[72][73]
  • Machi - Discovered in 1974 in Chandel district and Tengnoupal district of Manipur, this archeological site dates back to the period of early Stone Age and Lower Paleolithic period.[74][75][76][77][78]

Mesolithic period

The Mesolithic period (Hoabinhian period or post Paleolithic period or pre Neolithic period) has two remarkable archeological sites in Manipur. These are the Nongpok Keithelmanbi and the Tharon cave.[79][80]

  • Nongpok Keithelmanbi - The locality-1 out of the three localities (sections) of this site belongs to the Mesolithic period, while the others belong to the Paleolithic period. Most tools are made of the Quartzitic sandstone. Seventy nine artifacts of mesolithic period are discovered in this site. These are:- (1) Chisel edge pebble tools, (2) Round edge pebble tools, (3) Pebble pick, (4) Scrapper, (5) Blade, (6) Split pebble, (7) Pebble with batter marks, (8) Pebble with ground faces, (9) Flake and (10) Manu port. Approximate time dates back to 4460+-120 BP.[81]
  • Tharon cave - First exploration took place in 1979 by the State Archeology Department Government of Manipur, and again retaken in 1989, five caves were discovered so far. 39 mesolithic artifacts were discovered. These are:- (1) Chopping tools, (2) Hand adze, (3) Hand axe, (4) Pointed tools, (5) Scrapper, (6) Edge ground knife, (7) Quern, (8) Grinder, (9) twenty five unclassified ground pebbles.[82][83]

Neolithic period

The Neolithic period is the last of the three Stone Age periods. It has 4 archeological sites in Manipur.[84][85] These are (1) Napachik[86], (2) Laimanai[87], (3) Phunan[88], (4) Nongpok Keithelmanbi.[89]

  • Napachik - Excavation discovered 116 artifacts of Neolithic period from the site situated in Wangoo village.[90][91][92][93][94][95]
  • Laimanai - Excavation started in 1990 and discovered many more than 70 stone artifacts of Neolithic period.[96][97]
  • Phunan - Discovered in October, 1967, though some artifacts of Neolithic period were discovered so far, there is no official excavation took place till now.[98][99][100]
  • Nongpok Keithelmanbi - Besides having the existence during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods, this site also houses stone artifacts of Neolithic period, including the corded wares and ill fired potteries.[101][102]

Bibliography

Other websites

Act

Lainingthou Sanamahi Temple Act 1976

The Lainingthou Sanamahi Temple Act 1976 is an act passed by the Government of Manipur, for the protection of the Lainingthou Sanamahi Temple of Imphal, Manipur, India. It acts to make provisions for the maintenance and better administration of the temple of Lainingthou Sanamahi at Imphal and its endowments and for matters connected there with.[103][104][105]

High priest

Maichou

A Maichou is a high priest in Sanamahism (Meitei religion).[106] The term "maichou" is the product of the fusion of two Meitei language words, maiba meaning priest and achouba meaning chief or great.[107] They are regarded as the philosophers[108][109], shamans[110] and scholars.[111][112][113]

Transgender priest

Nupa Maibi

A Nupa Maibi or a Nupa Amaibi (literally, "male priestess"[114]) is a male transgender priest in Sanamahism (Meitei religion).[115] They are called "male priestess" as they hold the roles of the maibis in the religious rites and rituals, though they are biologically male. They are said to be possessed by the spirits of Lairembis (female deities).[116] They have crucial roles to play in the sacred Lai Haraoba festival.

Priestess

Maibi

A Maibi or an Amaibi is a female priestess or a nun who uphold the sacred rites and rituals of Sanamahism (Meitei religion).[117][118] Their lives and duties encompass a wide range of activities to the spiritual life of the Meitei ethnicity. They play significant role in the Lai Haraoba festival to please the Umang Lais and the Lam Lais.[119][120] Maibism or Maibi culture is a dominant feature in Sanamahism.[121] The male counterpart of a Maibi is a Maiba.

Priest

Maiba

A Maiba or an Amaiba (literally, "priest"[122][123]) is a religious leader authorised to perform the sacred rites and rituals of Sanamahism (Meitei religion)[124][125], especially as a mediatory agent between human beings and one or more deities. They have the authority or power to administer religious rites as well as sacrifices to gods. Their office or institution is called Maiba Loishang (Maiba Loisang), later renamed as Pandit Loisang, during Aryanisation of Meitei culture. They also served as healers, doctors[126], magicians[127], medicine men[128], physicians and shamans.[129][130] They play important roles in the ancestor worship (apokpa khurumjaba) ceremony.[131] Chief priest or chief among the maibas is called Maichou, a term formed with the amalgamation of two words ("maiba"- priest, "achouba"- big, chief, great).[132] Since their position is not hereditary, they acquire their positions through talent and skills.[133]

Book

Chayom Thupki

The Chayom Thupki (Meetei Philosophy), shortly known as the Chayom Thupki, is a philosophical work written by Makar Luwang and published by the S. Achauba Khaba Nganba in the year 1995.[134] The book is based on the principles and theories of Meitei philosophy of Meitei ethnicity. It contains 126 maxims, moral lesson quotes, proverbs, sayings and thoughts in Meitei language. Recently, it was translated into English language by James Oinam.[135]

Actress 2

Ethoi Oinam

Ethoi Oinam is an Indian film actress and model who predominantly appears in Manipuri language films of Imphal, Manipur. She started her film acting career as a child artist right from her school days. She is best known for her films including Eikhoi Pabunggi, Ashileibakki Hero, Nungshi Feijei series and Henna Nungaijei.

Actress 1

Maxina Paonam

Maxina Paonam, originally known as Angie Paonam, is an Indian film actress and model who predominantly appears in Meitei film industry. She is native to Manipur, India.

Films Year produced
Da Lem 2015
Chingda Satpi Engellei 2018
Naitom 2018
Yumleima 2019

Other websites

Religion

Meiteism File:Temple_at_Kangla.jpg The Meiteism is a term used to describe the original animistic religious belief system of the Meitei ethnicity in particular.[136][137][138][139] It refers to the pre-Hindu faith of the Meitei ethnic group.[140] It incorporates various teachings from the Meitei scriptures.[141] Meiteism is a large facet of the collective synthesis of believes known as Sanamahism. Though Meiteism is treated as another name of Sanamahism, the later term has wider coverage of the traditional beliefs and practices of the hill tribesman communities also. The term was used during the Meitei revivalism movement to promote the ethnic religion of the Meitei people explicitly.[142] In every Meitei household, there is a sacred abode of God Sanamahi, called the Sanamahi Kachin.[143]

Festival

Ougri festival

Ougri festival
Duration4 days
VenueNational Institute of Technology (NIT) campus, Takyelpat, Manipur
LocationManipur, India
TypeAnnual
Organised byNational Institute of Technology (NIT), Manipur
It is an annual cultural and technical festival organized by the institute.

The OUGRI is an annual cultural and technical festival organized by the National Institute of Technology (NIT), Manipur.[144][145][146] Its name is derived from the ancient cultural dance and music performance, Ougri of the Lai Haraoba festival.

There are many events organized in the festival, which includes sports, battle of bands, modern dance and cultural dance, DJ-night, mock placement, men soccer and LAN gaming in the NIT Manipur campus, Takyelpat.[147] The bands that participate in the battle of bands in the year 2015 include Agro, Freedom Band, Karima Band, MIT, Dominik, Abundant Life, Virgo Diamond, Riverted, Meitrabak and Electrify.[148]

Festival

Ougri

The Ougri Hangen or the Ougri Hangken, also known as the Leiroi Nongloi Esei, is a Meitei cultural ritual song with various appellations of the sun and the mythology of creation.[149] It is often sung in the conclusion of the Lai Haraoba festival.[150][151][152] Its theme is closely associated with the creation myth of the earth itself.[153] It is also regarded as the song of thanksgiving to the Almighty God.[154][155] It is always sung in the chorus formed by the male singers with the maiba as the precentor and is strongly enjoined that the chains of the singers forming a circle should never be snapped.[156] It is also known for its incantatory power[157], for with the alteration of a few lines, it is believed to have been able to cause either prosperity or destruction of the kingdom and the people.[158] Many rulers performed by themselves the rites of singing it with an accompanying dance on the occasion of their conquests[159] or coronation. According to the manuscript "Laisra Pham", a treatise on administration and social conduct, "Ougri" is refered to as sung at the coronation of Nongta Lailen Pakhangpa in 33 AD. The Naothingkhong Phambal Kaba mentions it as being taught by the sage Luwawg king to the Meitei prince as a part of the Meitei lore, which according to the chronicle Cheitharol Kumbaba, took place just prior to 663 AD. In some cases, it is also refered to as the actual war songs of the Meitei people.[160] Notably, it is regarded as one of the earliest gems in the Meitei literature (Manipuri literature).[161]

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=JQjgAAAAMAAJ&q=ougri&dq=ougri&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjcionPr-nwAhUICTQIHVg5BZ44ChDoATAIegQIBRAD

Constitution

Loyumba Shinyen

The Loyumba Shinyen, also termed as the Loyamba Sinyen, is a 12th century written constitution, regulated in the Manipur kingdom during the regime of King Loyumba (1074 AD-1112 AD).[162] A promulgation of the proto-constitution in 429 AD by King Naophangba was reduced to a final format in 1100 AD.[163][164][165] Historically, it is the first written constitution[166], and one of the well recorded antique manuscripts of the kingdom.[167][168] It includes the accounts of the distribution of the duties to the subjects of the king.[169][170] Its rules and regulations remains to be an authoritative work in the Meitei social system till the present day Manipur.[171]

Act

Manipur Ancient and Historical Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1976 The Manipur Ancient and Historical Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1976 is a legal act passed by the Government of Manipur, India. It aims at the protection and the preservation of the ancient and historical monuments and the archaeological sites and remains of Manipur. Presently, there are 51 protected monuments under the act. To incorporate and protect more sites and monuments of the state, this act was further amended in 1996 substituting 100 years by 75 years for classifying a monument eligible for protection.

Lang -pending

Chakpa Meitei
Chakpa Phayeng Sekmai[172][173]
Native toManipur[174]
Region India
EthnicityLoi communities of the Meitei ethnicity[175]
Era1445 BC - present
Sino-Tibetan
Early form
Dialects
Meitei script
Latin alphabet (to a lesser extent)
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologloii1241[179]

Chakpa Meitei or Loi Meitei is a spoken vernacular Meitei dialect of the Loi villages of Manipur.[180][181]

Chakpa Phayeng Sekmai is a dialect of Meitei language (Manipuri language), which is a part of the Sino-Tibetan family.[182][183]

Other websites

Prophet

Laininghan Naoriya Phulo Category:Meitei people

Meitei prophet

Laininghan Naoriya Phulo
Phundrei
Born28th August, 1888
Laishram Khul Mayai Leikai, Assam
Died1941
NationalityManipuri
OccupationPhilosopher and religious reformer[184]
OrganizationFounded the Apokpa Marup in 1930, Cachar[185]
Known forRevivalism of the antique paganism Sanamahism (Meitei religion) of the Meitei ethnicity[186]
Notable work
Apokpa Mapu Gi Tungnapham
TitleLaininghan
FamilyNaorem

Laininghan Naoriya Phulo (b.28th August, 1888) was a Meitei religious, social and political leader and the founder of the antique Meitei religion revivalist school of Apokpa Marup.[187][188][189] According to Meitei doctrines, he was regarded as a prophet who was born to preserve and revive the suppressed ancient paganism of the Meitei ethnicity.[190] He is seen as an example for all Meiteis to follow. He invented the modern Meitei script and Meitei numerals as a gift from the old script which he discovered from the Shakok Salai Thiren, an ancient manuscript, based on the cosmic evolution of the Meitei mythology.[191][192] Still today, people celebrate his birthday on the month of Thawan (August) according to Meitei calendar both in Assam and Manipur.[193]

Bibliography

Other websites

Surnames

Haoreima/sandbox
Origin
Language(s)Meitei language (Manipuri language)
Place of originManipur, North East India
Related pagesOinam family

' is a Meetei Manipuri surname or family name which has Indian origin. People of this family mainly inhabit in Manipur, India.[194][195]

Surnames-Deities

Family names mentioned in the Loyumba Shinyen

Meitei families and their serving respective pantheons

Selected Families Latin-Roman transliteration Deities to be served Latin-Roman transliteration
ꯍꯩꯔꯣꯝ Heirom[196] ꯃꯩꯔꯩꯃ Meireima[197][198]
ꯏꯔꯣꯝ Irom[199] ꯈꯝꯂꯥꯡꯕ Khamlangba[200]
ꯁꯣꯔꯦꯜꯁꯪꯕꯝ Sorelsangbam ꯁꯣꯔꯥꯔꯦꯟ Soraren[201]
ꯁꯔꯥꯡ ꯂꯩꯁꯥꯡꯊꯦꯝ Sharang Leishangthem* ꯂꯟꯃꯥꯕꯤ Lanmabee[202]
ꯁꯔꯣꯠꯈꯥꯏꯕꯝ Sharotkhaibam ꯐꯧꯑꯣꯏꯕꯤ Phouoibi[203]
ꯄꯣꯠꯁꯪꯕꯝ Potshangbam ꯁꯪꯂꯥꯡꯃꯩ (ꯀꯪꯂꯥ) Shanglangmei (Kangla)[204]
ꯃꯣꯏꯔꯥꯡ ꯄꯨꯈ꯭ꯔꯝꯕꯝ Moirang Pukhrambam ꯀꯨꯠꯆꯨ (ꯋꯥꯌꯦꯟꯁꯪ) Kutchu (Wayenshang)[205]
ꯁꯧꯕꯝ Shoubam ꯃꯋꯥꯎ ꯂꯩꯃ Mawao Leima[206]
ꯍꯩꯁ꯭ꯅꯥꯝ Heishnam ꯄꯥꯟꯊꯣꯏꯕꯤ Panthoibi[207]
ꯈꯣꯏꯁꯅꯥꯝ Khoisanam ꯄꯦꯇꯪꯉꯥ Petangnga[208]
ꯇꯥꯏꯕꯪꯖꯝ Taibangjam ꯂꯥꯏꯈꯨꯔꯦꯝꯕꯤ Laikhurembi[209]
ꯀꯣꯟꯊꯧꯖꯝ Konthoujam ꯍꯨꯏꯃꯨꯔꯩꯃ Huimureima[210]
ꯑꯁꯥꯡꯕꯝ Ashangbam ꯂꯥꯏꯅꯥꯎꯇꯥꯕꯤ Lainaotabi[211]
ꯆꯤꯡꯈꯥꯝ Chingkham ꯅꯨꯡꯊꯦꯜꯂꯩꯃ Nugthelleima[212]
ꯑꯔꯥꯝꯕꯝ Arambam ꯁꯧꯕꯣꯟ ꯂꯩꯃ Shoubon Leima[213]
ꯌꯦꯟꯈꯣꯝ ꯐꯤꯁꯥꯕꯝ Yenkhom Phisabam ꯑꯋꯥꯡꯕ (ꯂꯥꯏ ꯑꯋꯥꯡꯕ) Awangba[214]
ꯂꯨꯋꯥꯡꯁꯪꯕꯝ Luwangshangbam ꯂꯨꯋꯥꯡ ꯆꯤꯡ Luwang Ching (idolized)[215]
ꯁꯤꯅꯥꯝ ꯂꯥꯏꯁꯪꯕꯝ Sinam Laishangbam* ꯂꯥꯏꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧ Lainingthou[216]
ꯃꯣꯏꯔꯥꯡꯊꯦꯝ ꯄꯨꯊꯦꯝ Moirangthem Puthem* ꯄꯨꯊꯤꯕ Puthiba (idolized)[217]
ꯃꯪꯁꯥꯇꯥꯕꯝ Mangsatabam ꯄꯨꯔꯩꯔꯣꯝꯕ Pureiromba[218]
ꯂꯪꯃꯥꯏꯊꯦꯝ Langmaithem ꯇꯦꯟꯂꯣꯡꯕ Tenlongba[219]
ꯉꯔꯥꯡꯌꯥꯟꯄꯝ Ngarangyanpam ꯊꯣꯡꯉꯥꯛ Thongak[220]
ꯅꯥꯀꯜꯕꯝ Nakalbam ꯆꯤꯡꯀꯣꯜ ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧ Chingkol Ningthou[221]
ꯈꯨꯔꯥꯏꯖꯝ Khuraijam ꯆꯤꯡꯕꯥꯜ ꯂꯩꯃ Chingbal Leima[222]
ꯃꯩꯌꯦꯡꯕꯝ Meiyengbam ꯌꯥꯎꯔꯩꯕꯤ Yaoreibi[223]
ꯂꯩꯁꯥꯡꯊꯦꯝ Leishangthem* ꯀꯧꯕꯔꯦꯜ Koubarel[224]
ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧꯖꯝ Ningthoujam* ꯅꯨꯃꯤꯠ ꯂꯩꯃ Numit Leima[225]
ꯄꯨꯛꯀꯂꯕꯝ Pukkalabam ꯀꯧꯕ꯭ꯔꯨ Koubru[226]
ꯆꯦꯡꯂꯩ ꯂꯥꯏꯁꯥꯡꯕꯝ Chenglei Laishangbam* ꯃꯥꯔꯖꯤꯡ Marjing[227]
ꯃꯣꯏꯔꯥꯡꯊꯦꯝ Moirangthem* ꯃꯣꯏꯔꯥꯡ ꯐꯛꯇꯣꯝ ꯑꯔꯤꯕ Moirang Phaktom Ariba[228]
ꯀꯥꯡꯄꯨꯆꯝ Kangpucham ꯍꯣꯡꯅꯦꯝꯌꯣꯏ ꯈꯨꯟꯖꯥꯎ Hongnemyoi Khunjao[229]
ꯆꯤꯡꯈꯥꯜꯕꯝ Chingkhalbam ꯆꯤꯡꯉꯥ Chinga[230]
ꯂꯣꯡꯖꯝ ꯐꯩꯔꯣꯏꯖꯝ Longjam Pheiroijam ꯂꯥꯡꯖꯤꯡ Langjing[231]
ꯇꯦꯛꯆꯝ Tekcham ꯂꯥꯡꯉꯣꯜ Langgol[232]
ꯅꯣꯡꯃꯥꯏꯊꯦꯝ Nongmaithem ꯅꯣꯡꯃꯥꯏꯆꯤꯡ (ꯂꯪꯃꯥꯏꯆꯤꯡ) Nongmaiching (Langmaiching)[233]
ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧꯖꯝ Ningthoujam* ꯆꯤꯡꯉꯥ ꯂꯩꯃ Chinga Leima[234]
ꯍꯩꯊꯧ ꯈꯣꯡꯇꯦꯛꯆꯝ Heithou Khongtekcham ꯂꯥꯡꯆꯤꯡ ꯍꯤꯌꯥꯡꯊꯧ ꯂꯩꯃ Langching Hiyangthou Leima[235]
ꯊꯥꯎꯄꯤꯆꯝ Thaopicham ꯌꯨꯝꯖꯥꯎ ꯂꯩꯃ Yumjao Leima[236]

Notable Women

Notable women in the history of Manipur kingdom

Manipuri women have been known for their valor, skill and active involvement in social, economic, political and cultural activities, besides holding almost all the household responsibilities as a mother, wife, daughter, sister and daughter in law.[237]

British Political Agend of the then 1908 Manipur quoted in his monograph, The Meitheis as follows:

The women hold a high and free position in Manipur, all the integral trade and exchange of the produce of the country being managed by them. The habit of the country is to have bazars (markets) at convenient spots by the road side, where a handful of women congregate at the early hour...!

Linthoingambi

Leima Linthoingambi was the queen of king Ningthoukhomba (1432-1567) of Manipur. During the invasion of the Ankla tribes, the king had to proceed at the war field. At the King's absence in the capital city, the Tangkhul tribes raided the city. But in disguise as the king, the queen resisted their revolution by offering strong wine at the king's absence. With her wits, the kingdom was saved. This account is recorded in the Ningthourol Lambuba.[238][239][240]

Kuranganayani

Kuranganayani, originally known as Shija Phongalokpi, is the biological daughter of King Gaurishyam and the adoptive daughter of King Bhagyachandra. She was offered hand in marriage to the Ahom king to strengthen the relationship between the two kingdoms as well as to get military aid from the Ahoms for the Meiteis to resist the Burmese conquest of Manipur. But she turned out to be a heroine even in the Ahom kingdom. It was she who saved the Ahom kingdom from the hands of the Moamoriya revolts.[241][242][243][244][245][246][247][248][249][250]

Yairipok Thambalnu

Thambalnu was a lady from a poor family in Yairipok town of Manipur. But her beauty and charm causes conflicts among many able men in the kingdom in her times. During flood times from the Imphal river in the kingdom, the Royal Oracle proclaimed that the water god Wangbren will be pleased if a young girl is offered to Him. Since Thambalnu became a problem for numerous men, she was chosen to be offered to the deity. So, she was forcibly (or voluntarily) put in sacrifice to the strong river flow. After her death, the flood was also gone.[251]

Maharani Kumudini Queen Kumudini was widowed when her son was at a ripe age. She devised many diplomatic relations and plots to protect the throne from the other family members of the royalty. When her son, Chandrakirti became the king, she was known as a popular feminine icon in the kingdom.[252][253][254]

http://www.e-pao.net/epSubPageExtractor.asp?src=manipur.History_of_Manipur.The_Role_Of_Manipuri_Women_In_Administration_Part_2

http://www.e-pao.net/epSubPageExtractor.asp?src=manipur.History_of_Manipur.The_Role_Of_Manipuri_Women_In_Administration_Part_3

http://e-pao.net/epSubPageExtractor.asp?src=features.Spotlight_On_Women.Role_of_Women_in_Manipur_2

http://e-pao.net/epSubPageExtractor.asp?src=features.Spotlight_On_Women.Manipur_A_womans_world_By_Ashwini_Sunil

http://e-pao.net/epSubPageExtractor.asp?src=features.Spotlight_On_Women.Manipuri_women_and_their_tolerance_By_Nganthoi_Lourembam

http://e-pao.net/epSubPageExtractor.asp?src=features.Spotlight_On_Women.Meitei_Women_in_Collectives_Gender_Roles_and_Potentials_Part_1_By_Ningthoujam_Irina

http://e-pao.net/epSubPageExtractor.asp?src=features.Spotlight_On_Women.Meitei_Women_in_Collectives_Gender_Roles_and_Potentials_Part_2_By_Ningthoujam_Irina

http://e-pao.net/epSubPageExtractor.asp?src=features.Spotlight_On_Women.Meitei_Women_in_Collectives_Gender_Roles_and_Potentials_Part_3_By_Ningthoujam_Irina

http://e-pao.net/epSubPageExtractor.asp?src=features.Spotlight_On_Women.Patriarchy_in_Disguise_The_Role_and_Status_of_Women_of_Meitei_society_in_Manipur_Part_1

http://e-pao.net/epSubPageExtractor.asp?src=features.Spotlight_On_Women.Patriarchy_in_Disguise_The_Role_and_Status_of_Women_of_Meitei_society_in_Manipur_Part_2

http://e-pao.net/epSubPageExtractor.asp?src=features.Spotlight_On_Women.Ningol_Chakouba_Festival_Giving_respect_to_Girls_and_Women_By_Moirangthem_Jiban

http://e-pao.net/epSubPageExtractor.asp?src=features.Spotlight_On_Women.True_Spirit_Of_Ningol_Chakouba_by_Seram_Neken

http://e-pao.net/epSubPageExtractor.asp?src=features.Spotlight_On_Women.Manipuri_Women_A_Complete_Person_By_Seram_Neken

http://e-pao.net/epSubPageExtractor.asp?src=features.Spotlight_On_Women.Women_in_Manipur

Gods

Imung Lai An Imung Lai or Emung Lai is any god or goddess worshipped inside the household of the mankind in Meitei folklore and religion. The Imung Lais are the protectors and caretakers of the people. People perform different rites and rituals to worship the deities. The main deities include Sanamahi and Leimarel.

Goddess

Incarnations of Nongthang Leima

Names Alternate spellings Latin transliteration English translation (or description)
ꯄꯥꯟꯊꯣꯢꯄꯤ ꯄꯥꯟꯊꯣꯏꯕꯤ, ꯄꯥꯟꯊꯣꯢꯕꯤ, ꯄꯥꯟꯊꯣꯏꯄꯤ Panthoibi Goddess of war, love and fertility[255][256][257]
ꯇꯥꯟꯊꯣꯡ ꯂꯩꯃ ꯇꯥꯟꯊꯣꯪ ꯂꯩꯃ Tanthong Leima
ꯂꯦꯝꯊꯣꯡ ꯂꯩꯃ ꯂꯦꯝꯊꯣꯪ ꯂꯩꯃ Lemthong Leima
ꯂꯝꯇꯦꯡ ꯂꯩꯃ ꯂꯝꯇꯦꯪ ꯂꯩꯃ Lamteng Leima
ꯍꯩꯅꯧꯄꯣꯛ ꯂꯩꯃ - Heinoupok Leima Goddess of mango tree
ꯆꯪꯅꯤꯡ ꯂꯩꯃ ꯆꯡꯅꯤꯡ ꯂꯩꯃ, ꯆꯪꯅꯤꯪ ꯂꯩꯃ, ꯆꯡꯅꯤꯪ ꯂꯩꯃ Chang-ning Leima
ꯅꯨꯡꯀꯣꯢꯄꯤ ꯅꯨꯡꯀꯣꯏꯄꯤ, ꯅꯨꯡꯒꯣꯢꯕꯤ, ꯅꯨꯡꯒꯣꯏꯕꯤ Noong-koipi War goddess
ꯀꯣꯂꯣꯢ ꯂꯩꯃ ꯀꯣꯂꯣꯏ ꯂꯩꯃ Koloi Leima Goddess of naming
ꯊꯨꯝ ꯂꯩꯃ ꯊꯨꯝꯔꯩꯃ Thumleima Goddess of salt and salt brines[258][259][260]
ꯉꯥꯂꯩꯃ ꯉꯥꯔꯩꯃ Ngaleima Goddess of fish[261][262][263]
ꯊꯥꯂꯩꯃ ꯊꯥꯔꯩꯃ Thaleima Goddess of moon
ꯐꯧꯑꯣꯢꯄꯤ ꯐꯧꯑꯣꯏꯄꯤ, ꯐꯧꯑꯣꯏꯕꯤ, ꯐꯧꯑꯣꯢꯕꯤ, ꯐꯧꯂꯩꯃ, ꯐꯧꯔꯩꯃ Phouoipi Goddess of agriculture, crops and food[264][265][266][267]
ꯌꯣꯠ ꯂꯩꯃ ꯌꯣꯠꯔꯩꯃ Yot-Leima Goddess of iron
ꯋꯥꯇꯂꯩ ꯁꯤꯜꯍꯩꯄꯤ ꯋꯥꯇꯔꯩ ꯁꯤꯟꯍꯩꯕꯤ Waatalei Silheipi Goddess of artisans and occupation
ꯀꯣꯟ ꯂꯩꯃ ꯀꯣꯜꯂꯩꯃ Kon-Leima Goddess of utensils
ꯈꯥꯢꯄ ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧ ꯆꯅꯨ ꯈꯥꯏꯄ ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧ ꯆꯅꯨ Khaipa Ningthou Chanu
ꯃꯣꯢꯅꯨ ꯆꯅꯨ ꯃꯣꯏꯅꯨ ꯆꯅꯨ Moinu Chanu (Imoinu) Caretaker goddess of mankind, wealth and prosperity[268][269]
ꯄꯤꯊꯦꯠ ꯂꯩꯃ - Pithet Leima
ꯂꯥꯢꯋꯥ ꯂꯩꯃ ꯂꯥꯢꯁꯟ ꯊꯥꯟꯄꯤ ꯂꯥꯏꯋꯥ ꯂꯩꯃ ꯂꯥꯏꯁꯟ ꯊꯥꯟꯕꯤ Laiwa Leima Laisan Thaanpi
ꯈꯥꯄꯤ ꯂꯨꯀꯣꯢ ꯆꯅꯨ ꯈꯥꯕꯤ ꯂꯨꯀꯣꯏ ꯆꯅꯨ Khapi Lukoi Chanu
ꯂꯤꯛꯂꯥꯄꯤꯆꯥ ꯂꯤꯛꯂꯥꯕꯤꯆꯥ Liklapicha
ꯌꯥꯢꯄꯤ ꯂꯩꯃ ꯌꯥꯏꯕꯤ ꯂꯩꯃ, ꯌꯥꯢꯕꯤ ꯂꯩꯃ, ꯌꯥꯏꯄꯤ ꯂꯩꯃ Yaipi Leima Goddess of souls
ꯊꯣꯡꯉꯥꯛ ꯂꯩꯃ ꯊꯣꯪꯉꯥꯛ ꯂꯩꯃ Thongak Leima Gatekeeper goddess of the door of the death
ꯁꯤꯇꯥꯅꯨꯄꯤ - Sitanupi
ꯆꯂꯥꯡ ꯂꯩꯃ ꯆꯔꯥꯡ ꯂꯩꯃ Chalang Leima (Charang Leima)
ꯄꯤꯊꯥꯢꯄꯤ ꯄꯤꯊꯥꯏꯕꯤ, ꯄꯤꯊꯥꯢꯕꯤ, ꯄꯤꯊꯥꯏꯄꯤ Pithaipi Giver Goddess
ꯈꯥꯡꯇꯂꯥꯢꯄꯤ ꯈꯣꯡꯇꯂꯥꯏꯄꯤ, ꯈꯣꯡꯗ꯭ꯔꯥꯢꯕꯤ, ꯈꯣꯡꯗ꯭ꯔꯥꯏꯕꯤ Khongtalaipi
ꯁꯂꯤꯛ ꯂꯩꯃ ꯁꯔꯤꯛ ꯂꯩꯃ Salik Leima (Sarik Leima)
ꯈꯝꯄ ꯌꯥꯡꯇꯩ ꯈꯝꯕ ꯌꯥꯡꯗꯩ Khampa Yangtei
ꯅꯨꯡꯈꯣꯡ ꯅꯨꯡꯂꯥꯎꯄꯤ ꯅꯨꯡꯈꯣꯡ ꯅꯨꯡꯂꯥꯎꯕꯤ Nungkhong Nunglaopi Goddess of stones
ꯄꯨꯛꯁꯂꯤ ꯂꯩꯃ ꯄꯨꯛꯁ꯭ꯔꯤ ꯂꯩꯃ Pukhsali Leima

Princess

Shija Laioibi

Sija Laioibi (literally, "a princess who became a goddess"[270] or "a princess who looks after a God"[271][272]), also known as Shija Lailotpi[273] or Bimbabati[274], is the daughter of King Rajarshi Bhagyachandra and the princess of Medieval Manipur.[275] She is said to be the dancer of the Manipuri Rasa Leela dance in the premise of the Shri Govindaji Temple, notably by wearing the potloi, for the first time in the history of Manipur.[276][277] She remained to be a spinster for her whole life, dedicating herself as the spiritual consort (or "female devotee") of Hindu God Krishna[278], for which she earned the title "Mirabai of the Hindu Manipuris".[279] She is a popular figure in the Manipuri Vaishnavism. Later, she ended her life in Nabadwip, the birthplace of Lord Chaitanya.[280]

Documents

Cheitharol Kumbaba

The Cheitharol Kumbaba, originally spelt as the Cheithalol Kumpapa, is the royal court chronicle of the rulers of the Ningthouja dynasty of Manipur.[281][282] It records various historical events happened in different reigns of the succeeding rulers right from the reign of Nongta Lailen Pakhangpa in 33 AD.[283][284][285][286]

  1. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=f3AMAQAAMAAJ&q=cheitharol+kumbaba&dq=cheitharol+kumbaba&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjB55yY8LnwAhVYH7cAHQT_DbkQ6AEwB3oECAkQAw
  2. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=ndjsAAAAMAAJ&q=cheitharol+kumbaba&dq=cheitharol+kumbaba&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjH8Pub-bnwAhUU-nMBHRt_Bx44ChDoATAGegQIBhAD

Pending

List of rulers of Moirang kingdom

Sl. No. Name of the rulers Reign
1 Iwang Puriklai Ngangningshing Unknown
2 Iwang Puriklai Hamsha Thaba Unknown
3 Iwang Puriklai Phang Liklai Unknown
4 Iwang Puriklai Yoiba Unknown
5 Iwang Puriklai Narong Unknown
6 Iwang Puriklai Mayamba Unknown
7 Iwang Puriklai Sunucha Unknown
Sl. No. Name of the rulers Reign Periods
1 Iwang Puriklai Phang Phang Ponglen Hanba 80 52 BC- 28 AD
2 Iwang Puriklai Telheiba 50 28 - 78
3 Iwang Puriklai Lai Phacheng 52 78-130
4 Iwang Puriklai Ura Ngangoiba (Ura Khundaba) 55 130-185
5 Iwang Puriklai Sana Lakhwa 51 185-236
6 Iwang Puriklai Laiyu Punshiba 61 236-297
7 Iwang Puriklai Tusemba 40 297-337
8 Iwang Puriklai Koting Ahanpa 50 337-387
9 Iwang Puriklai Thikri Nachaopa (Chothe Thangwai Pakhangba) 60 387-447
10 Iwang Puriklai Nungnang Tomba 49 447-496
11 Iwang Puriklai Khokhei Lanthaba 37 496-533
12 Iwang Puriklai Ura Khongyamba 41 533-574
13 Iwang Puriklai Theeyang Meechaoba 60 574-614
14 Iwang Puriklai Khokwa Nunghui Rang 48 614-662
15 Iwang Puriklai Iwang Charanba 6 662-693
16 Iwang Puriklai Thangga Ephen Lanthaba 41 693-739
17 Iwang Puriklai Sangthong Khuba 45 739-784
18 Iwang Puriklai Chingkhu Ura Telheiba 41 784-825
19 Iwang Puriklai Mashemba 42 825-867
20 Iwang Puriklai Koirenba 50 867-917
21 Iwang Puriklai Kaba Purang 65 917-982
22 Iwang Puriklai Ethai Kairemba 41 982-1023
23 Iwang Puriklai Sangton Leinaota 31 1023-1054
24 Iwang Puriklai Atellakki Loicha Ngamba 29 1054-1083
25 Iwang Puriklai Chingkhu Telheiba 55 1083-1138
26 Iwang Puriklai Laijing Punshiba 72 1138-1210
27 Iwang Puriklai Khongjomba 53 1210-1263
28 Iwang Puriklai Yoiremba 49 1263-1312
29 Iwang Puriklai Punshi Khurenchanba 69 1312-1381
30 Iwang Puriklai Sana Hongba 51 1381-1432

CULTURE

Versions of gods
Greek Version Roman Version Etruscan Version Norse Version Meitei Version
Adonis   Atunis  
Amphitrite Salacia Ereima, Thumleima and Ngaleima
Aphrodite Venus Turan Freyja Panthoibi
Apollo Apollo Aplu Baldur Korouhanba
Ares Mars Laran Tyr Marjing
Artemis Diana Artume Skadi Thaa Leima
Athena Minerva Menrva Frigg, Freya Panthoibi
Chloris Flora      
Demeter Ceres   Sif Phouoibi
Dionysus Bacchus Fufluns   Phou Ningthou
Eos Aurora Thesan  
Hades Pluto Aita Hel Thongalel
Harmonia      
Hebe Juventas Idunn
Hecate Trivia Lainaotabi
Hephaestus Vulcan Sethlans Thor Pishatao and Khamlangba
Hera Juno Uni Frigga Leimarel Sidabi and Tampha Lairembi
Hermes Mercury Turms Hermod Sanamahi
Hestia Vesta Emoinu and Yumjao Leima
Hypnos Somnus Khuman Apokpa
Iris Arcus Nongdol Leima
Nemesis Nemesis
Nike Victoria     Nongpok Leima
Poseidon Neptune Nethuns Njörd Wangbren and Irai Ningthou
Persephone Proserpina Ēostre Laikhurembi
Selene Luna Lusna   Thaleima
Tyche Fortuna Lan Leima
Zeus Jupiter Tinia Odin Salailen

Potloi

Potloi or Polloi (literally, "final product" or "end product") is a cylindrical skirt made up of thick fabric that is ornamented with sequins and mirrors.[287] It is usually used by the Meitei Hindu brides in Meitei wedding and the dancers in the Manipuri Rasa Leela dance.[288][289][290][291][292] Notably, it is not used by the brides in traditional (Sanamahist) Meitei wedding.[293]

Meitei wedding

Meitei marriage or Manipuri wedding customs ("Luhongba" or "Yum-Paanba") are the traditions and practices that relate to wedding ceremonies and marriage rituals prevailing within the Meitei culture.[294][295] The ceremonies and customs have changed greatly in the past 350 years. Original traditional Meitei weddings are supposed to be very similar to modern matrimonial practices of the Sanamahists and rural weddings (in Loi villages of Manipur). Notably, modern day Sanamahist matrimonial practices are in fact, the original true traditional Meitei wedding without the influence of foreign culture.[296][297][298] No matter what religion one follows, the Meiteis are not allowed to marry between the persons of the same salai (clan).[299] Else, severe punishment or banishment from the society (colony) is the usual result in Meitei culture.[300] Generally, in urban areas, monogamy is common while in rural areas, polygamy is not rare.[301]

The marriage process usually starts with the meeting between the couple's families and the consultation on the two's horoscopes. If everything is fine, the marriage day will be fixed and finally, the partners will be wedded.[302][303][304]

Regarding the cultural diversity of the Meitei ethnicity, there are the adherents of Sanamahism, Hinduism, Christianity and Islam.[305] During early times, there were strong religious barriers between the castes inside the Meitei ethnicity. For instance, a general Meitei (either Hindu or Sanamahist) cannot marry a person who belongs to Meitei Pangal (Manipuri Muslim) or Meitei Bishnupriya (Bishnupriya Manipuri) communities.[306]

Traditional Meitei practices In the traditional Meitei marriage ceremony, brides do not wear potloi. Instead, they wear phanek (traditional Meitei sarong). Besides, the sacred chantings will all be done in Classical Meitei language.[307][308][309][310]

Hindu practices Since Hinduism among the Meitei ethnicity is actually brought from the Vaishnavism of Bengal, the Meitei Hindus somehow imitate and follow the traditional matrimonial styles of the Bengalis.[311] In the Meitei Hindu marriage, brides wear potloi instead of phanek. Besides, many of the sacred chantings are performed in Sanskrit in addition to Classical Manipuri language.[312][313][314]

Christian practices There is no unique way to Meitei Christian marriage ceremony. In fact, the Meitei Christians perform the same general Christian marriage ceremony. Islamic practices The Meitei Pangal people (Meitei Muslim people) has a unique culture which is a fusion of the traditional Meitei practices and the general Islamic practices.

HISTORY

Name of the rulers Period (in Christian year) Period (in Maliyapham year)
Taang-jaa Lee-La Pakhangpa 1445 BC-1405 BC -
Ningthou Kangba 1405 BC-1359 BC 00 MF- 39 MF
Maliyapham Palcha 1359BC-1329 BC 39 MF- 69 MF
Ningthou Kaksuba 1329 BC- 1297 BC 69 MF- 101 MF
Ningthou Tonkonba 1297 BC- 1276 BC 101 MF- 122 MF
Ningthou Pottingkoi 1276 BC- 1251 BC 122MF -147 MF
Ningthou Laanbichaa 1251 BC-1229 BC 147MF- 169 MF
Ningthou Sapaiba 1229BC- 1209 BC 169MF- 189 MF
Ningthou Puthiba 1209BC- 1199 BC 189MF- 199 MF
Name of the rulers Period (in Christian year) Period (in Maliyapham year)
Samlungphaa 44 BC- 34 BC 1354MF- 1364 MF
Poireiton 34 BC- 18 BC 1364 MF- 1380 MF
Singtabung 18 BC- 8 BC 1380 MF- 1390 MF
Paangminnaba 8 BC- 1 BC 1390 MF- 1397 MF
Luwang Khunthiba 1 BC- 5 AD 1397 MF- 1403 MF
Luwang Punshiba 5 AD- 33 AD 1403MF- 1431 MF
Capital cities Latin transliteration Respective kingdoms Latin transliteration Ruling dynasties Latin transliteration
ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ ꯀꯪꯂꯥ Imphal Kangla ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ Imphal ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧꯖꯥ (ꯃꯉꯥꯡ) Ningthouja (Mangang)
ꯂꯨꯋꯥꯡꯁꯪꯕꯝ ꯀꯪꯂꯥ Luwangsangbam Kangla ꯂꯨꯋꯥꯡꯁꯪꯕꯝ Luwangsangbam ꯂꯨꯋꯥꯡ Luwang
ꯅꯣꯡꯌꯥꯢ ꯂꯩꯀꯣꯢꯄꯨꯡ Nongyai Leikoipung ꯃꯌꯥꯡ ꯏꯝꯐꯥꯜ Mayang Imphal ꯈꯨꯃꯟ Khuman
ꯀꯣꯡꯕ ꯃꯔꯨ ꯀꯪꯂꯥ Kongba Maru Kangla ꯀꯣꯡꯕ ꯃꯔꯨ Kongba Maru ꯑꯉꯣꯝ Angom
ꯃꯣꯢꯔꯥꯡ ꯀꯪꯂꯥ Moirang Kangla ꯀꯦꯀꯦ ꯃꯣꯢꯔꯥꯡ Keke Moirang ꯃꯣꯢꯔꯥꯡ ꯁꯂꯥꯢ Moirang Salai
ꯇꯥꯛꯅꯈꯥ ꯄꯨꯔꯨꯛ ꯁꯧꯄꯤ ꯀꯪꯂꯥ Taknakha Puruk Soupi Kangla ꯇꯥꯛꯅꯈꯥ ꯄꯨꯔꯨꯛ ꯁꯧꯄꯤ Taknakha Puruk Soupi ꯈꯥ ꯉꯥꯟꯄ Kha Nganpa
ꯂꯩꯁꯪꯈꯣꯡ ꯀꯪꯂꯥ Leishangkhong Kangla ꯂꯩꯁꯪꯈꯣꯡ Leishangkhong ꯁꯂꯥꯢ ꯂꯩꯁꯥꯡꯊꯦꯝ Salai Leishangthem

Films

Imphal 1944

Imphal 1944

Imphal 1944 is 2014 WWII feature film based on the Battle of Imphal, directed and produced by Japanese actor and filmmaker Junichi Kajioka, based on London.[315][316][317] It was produced on the 70th Anniversary Commemoration of the Battle of Imphal (WWII) in Imphal on 28th June, 2014.[318][319] Notably, the film was screened in the Cannes Film Festival in 2015.[320]

Japan Landa Imphal

Japan Landa Imphal

Japan Landa Imphal (English: Imphal in the Japanese war) is a 2012 Indian Meitei Manipuri language historical romantic fiction film, produced by Chandam Shyamcharan Singh.[321][322][323] The storyline is based on the romance between a Meitei girl and a Japanese soldier during the Battle of Imphal, a World War II event in Manipur.[324]

Religion

Classical Meitei

Classical Meitei

Classical Meitei
Classical Manipuri
Region India
EthnicityMeitei ethnicity
Sino-Tibetan
  • Tibeto-Burman
    • Indo-Mongolian
      • Classical Meitei
Meitei script[325]
Official status
Official language in
 India
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Classical Meitei or Classical Manipuri represents the development of the rich literary sources of the present day Meitei literature.[326] It is more than 3500 years old. It reaches the criteria for being a classical language[327] as it has attained the following four criteria:

  1. It has a recorded history of more than 3500 years, exceeding 1500 years of history, for general criteria.[328]
  2. It has a huge volume of ancient literature and is the heritage of the present generation.[329]
  3. It has an original literary tradition independent from the other speech communities.[330]
  4. It has its ancient literature being distinct from the modern form. And, the modern Meitei is an offshoot of the archaic Meitei.[331]

The presently available volume of ancient literature is actually lessened due to the dark historical event of Puya Mei Thaba (literally, "burning of the manuscripts") in the 18th century AD. At the same time, many of the ancient folklore and poetic works are still preserved in its oral traditional form linking with the Lai Haraoba festival.[332]

Sources

Sun God

Names of the Sun God in Meitei religion

Classical Meitei Transliteration Translation
ꯀꯣꯂꯧ (ꯀꯣꯔꯧ) Kolou (Korou) "The Sun"
ꯀꯣꯂꯧꯍꯟꯄ (ꯀꯣꯔꯧꯍꯟꯕ) Kolouhanpa (Korouhanba) "Master of the Sky"[333]
ꯁꯅꯥ ꯈꯣꯝꯃꯇꯣꯟ (ꯁꯅꯥ ꯈꯣꯝꯃꯗꯣꯟ) Sana Khommaton (Sana Khommadon)[334] "Golden sphere" or "Golden ball"
ꯁꯦꯟꯀꯣꯢꯂꯦꯡ/ꯁꯦꯟꯀꯣꯏꯂꯦꯡ (ꯁꯦꯟꯒꯣꯢꯔꯦꯡ/ꯁꯦꯟꯒꯣꯏꯔꯦꯡ) Senkoileng/Shenkoileng (Sengoireng/Shengoireng) "The planet" or "Circle of light"[335]
ꯁꯣꯡꯄꯨ ꯆꯤꯂꯥꯢ ꯇꯥꯡꯄ (ꯁꯣꯡꯕꯨ ꯆꯤꯔꯥꯢ ꯇꯥꯡꯕ) Songpu Chilai Tangpa (Songbu Chirai Tangba) "Bald headed physician"[336]
ꯂꯥꯡꯆꯈꯩ (ꯂꯥꯡꯖꯈꯩ) Langchakhei (Langjakhei)[337]
ꯃꯥꯂꯦꯝꯈꯩ Malemkhei[338]
ꯅꯨꯃꯤꯠ Numit "The Sun" or "Eye of the Sky"[339][340]
ꯅꯣꯡꯁꯥꯄ ꯃꯩ (ꯅꯣꯡꯁꯥꯕ ꯃꯩ) Nongsapa Mei (Nongsaba Mei)[341] "Celestial fire" or "Heavenly fire"
ꯅꯣꯡꯄꯣꯛ ꯋꯥꯢꯂꯪꯆꯥ (ꯅꯣꯡꯄꯣꯛ ꯋꯥꯢꯔꯪꯆꯥ) Nongpok Wailangcha (Nongpok Wairangcha)[342]
ꯆꯥꯂꯪꯁꯣꯟ (ꯆꯥꯔꯪꯁꯣꯟ) Chalangson (Charangson)[343]
ꯇꯥꯎꯂꯣꯢꯅꯥꯢ/ꯇꯥꯎꯂꯣꯏꯅꯥꯏ (ꯇꯥꯎꯔꯣꯢꯅꯥꯢ/ꯇꯥꯎꯔꯣꯏꯅꯥꯏ) Taoloinai/Tauloinai (Taoroinai/Tauroinai)[344] "The floating one"
ꯇꯥꯎꯇꯟꯄ (ꯇꯥꯎꯗꯟꯕ) Taotanpa (Taodanba)[345] "Slowly floating object"
ꯇꯥꯎꯍꯨꯏꯂꯦꯡ (ꯇꯥꯎꯍꯨꯢꯂꯦꯡ, ꯇꯥꯎꯍꯨꯏꯔꯦꯡ, ꯇꯥꯎꯍꯨꯢꯔꯦꯡ) Taohuileng (Taohuireng)[346]
ꯈꯥꯀꯤ ꯅꯍꯥ ꯁꯥꯐꯄ (ꯈꯥꯒꯤ ꯅꯍꯥ ꯁꯥꯐꯕ) Khaki Nahaa Saphapa (Khagi Nahaa Saphaba)[347] "Northern Muscular Man"
ꯈꯣꯢꯄꯨꯡꯁꯦꯟ/ꯈꯣꯏꯄꯨꯡꯁꯦꯟ (ꯈꯣꯢꯕꯨꯡꯁꯦꯟ/ꯈꯣꯏꯕꯨꯡꯁꯦꯟ) Khoipungsen (Khoibungsen)[348]
ꯉꯥꯟꯇꯨꯂꯦꯡ (ꯉꯥꯟꯇꯨꯔꯦꯡ) Ngantuleng (Ngantureng) "The Brightness Emitter" or "The Remover of Darkness"[349]
ꯊꯄꯤꯂꯣꯡ (ꯊꯕꯤꯂꯣꯡ) Thapilong (Thabilong)[350] "Extraterrestrial planet" or "Extraterrestrial heavenly body"
ꯌꯣꯢꯃꯌꯥꯢ (ꯌꯣꯏꯃꯌꯥꯏ) Yoimayai[351] "Sun God about to set"[352]
ꯑꯄꯥꯟꯄ (ꯑꯄꯥꯟꯕ) Apanpa (Apanba)[353] "The Ruler"
ꯑꯉꯥꯟꯄ (ꯑꯉꯥꯟꯕ) Anganpa (Anganba) "The Bright"[354]

Supreme God

Names of the Supreme God in Meitei religion

Classical Meitei Transliteration (including different spellings) English Translations
ꯀꯨꯂꯨ (ꯀꯨꯔꯨ) Kulu (Kuru) "The Round Hemisphere"[355] or "The Endless Sky" or "The Eternal one"[356]
ꯁꯂꯥꯢꯂꯦꯟ/ꯁꯂꯥꯏꯂꯦꯟ (ꯁꯂꯥꯢꯂꯦꯜ/ꯁꯂꯥꯏꯂꯦꯜ, ꯁꯂꯥꯢꯔꯦꯟ/ꯁꯂꯥꯏꯔꯦꯟ, ꯁꯂꯥꯢꯔꯦꯜ/ꯁꯂꯥꯏꯔꯦꯜ) Salailen (Salailel, Salairen or Salairel) "The Supreme Breeder"[357]
ꯁꯤꯇꯄ ꯃꯄꯨ (ꯁꯤꯗꯕ ꯃꯄꯨ) Sitapa Mapu (Sidaba Mapu) "Immortal Master" or "Eternal God" or "Immortal God"[358][359][360]
ꯁꯣꯔꯥꯔꯦꯟ/ꯁꯣꯔꯥꯔꯦꯜ Soraren/Sorarel "King of the Gods"[361]
ꯂꯥꯢ ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧ (ꯂꯥꯏ ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧ) Lai Ningthou "King of the Gods"
ꯂꯥꯢ ꯑꯋꯥꯡꯄ/ꯂꯥꯏ ꯑꯋꯥꯡꯕ Lai Awangpa/Lai Awangba "High God"
ꯅꯣꯡ ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧ Nong Ningthou "King of the Sky" or "King of the Rains"
ꯆꯤꯉꯨ ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧ Chingu Ningthou/Chi-ngoo Ningthou "King of the Gods"
ꯆꯤꯉꯨ ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧ ꯄꯥꯟꯆꯨꯝꯄ (ꯆꯤꯉꯨ ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧ ꯄꯥꯟꯖꯨꯝꯕ) Chingu Ningthou/Chi-ngoo Ningthou Paanchumpa (Paanjumba) "Divine King with flawless aim"
ꯇꯥꯏꯄꯪ ꯃꯄꯨ/ꯇꯥꯢꯄꯪ ꯃꯄꯨ (ꯇꯥꯏꯕꯪ ꯃꯄꯨ/ꯇꯥꯢꯕꯪ ꯃꯄꯨ) Taipang Mapu (Taibang Mapu) "Master of the Universe"[362]
ꯇꯦꯡꯄꯥꯟꯄ ꯃꯄꯨ (ꯇꯦꯡꯕꯥꯟꯕ ꯃꯄꯨ) Tengpanpa Mapu (Tengbanba Mapu) "Master of the Universe"
ꯈꯥꯛꯄ ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧ Khaakpa Ningthou/Khakpa Ningthou "King of Thunder and Lightning"
ꯈꯣꯌꯨꯝ ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧ Khoyum Ningthou "King of the Gods"
ꯌꯥꯢꯄꯤꯂꯦꯜ/ꯌꯥꯏꯄꯤꯂꯦꯜ (ꯌꯥꯢꯄꯤꯂꯦꯟ/ꯌꯥꯏꯄꯤꯂꯦꯟ, ꯌꯥꯢꯄꯤꯔꯦꯜ/ꯌꯥꯏꯄꯤꯔꯦꯜ, ꯌꯥꯢꯄꯤꯔꯦꯟ/ꯌꯥꯏꯄꯤꯔꯦꯟ) Yaipilel (Yaipilen, Yaipirel, Yaipiren) "The Supreme Soul"[363]
ꯌꯥꯢꯕꯤꯂꯦꯜ/ꯌꯥꯏꯕꯤꯂꯦꯜ (ꯌꯥꯢꯕꯤꯂꯦꯟ/ꯌꯥꯏꯕꯤꯂꯦꯟ, ꯌꯥꯢꯕꯤꯔꯦꯜ/ꯌꯥꯏꯕꯤꯔꯦꯜ, ꯌꯥꯢꯕꯤꯔꯦꯟ/ꯌꯥꯏꯕꯤꯔꯦꯟ) Yaibilel (Yaibilen, Yaibirel, Yaibiren) "The Supreme Soul"[364]
ꯏꯄꯨꯂꯣꯢ/ꯏꯄꯨꯂꯣꯏ (ꯏꯄꯨꯔꯣꯢ/ꯏꯄꯨꯔꯣꯏ) Eepuloi (Eepuroi) "Supreme Grandfather"
ꯑꯆꯤꯄ/ꯑꯆꯤꯕ Achipa/Achiba
ꯑꯇꯤꯛꯉꯥ Atik-ngaa
ꯑꯇꯤꯡꯀꯣꯛ Atingkok "The Void" or "An empty space"[365]
ꯑꯇꯤꯌꯥ Atiya "The Sky"[366][367]
ꯑꯋꯥꯡꯄ/ꯑꯋꯥꯡꯕ Awangpa/Awangba "High"
ꯑꯋꯥꯡ ꯄꯥꯈꯪ ꯌꯣꯏꯂꯦꯜꯄ (ꯌꯣꯏꯔꯦꯜꯄ) Awang Pakhang Yoilelpa (Yoirelpa) "Eastern Handsome Man" or "Highland Handsome Man"

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Category
Primordial deities

Atingkok • Leimalel • Sanamahi • Pakhangpa

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Holy language (Ancient Meitei language)

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Kangla • Keke Moilang • Khuman Leipaak

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Khamlangpa • Khoiliphapa • Kolouhanpa

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Meitei fundamental ceremony

Epaan Thaapa • Chaa-umpa • Luhongpa

Sheepa • Philoi

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Maichou • Mainou

Maipa/priest • Maipi/priestess

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Pakhangpa Thellon • Sanamahi Shanglen • Lainingkol

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Mangang • Luwang • Khuman

Religious festivals

Cheilaopa • Emoinu Elaatpa • Lai Halaopa

Mela Chaolel Houpa • Mela Hou Chongpa

Panthoipi Elatpa • Sanamahi Ahong Khong Chingpa

Lai Halaopa and its holy dances

Chukphalol • Laiching • Laihou • Leima • Leisem

Maipi • Panthoipi • Thoukal

Keke Moilang Khampa Thoipi Chatkoi

Sanamahism & other religions

Animism • Paganism • Shamanism

Polytheistic religions
Related topics

Puya Mei Thapa • Seven Years Devastation

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Meitei Manipuri Mythology & Folklore

Mythic Texts and Folktales:
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Fungawari Singbul | Funga Wari
Divinities:
Maikei Ngaakpa Lais | Leimalel | Sanamahi
Emoinu | Panthoipi
Legendary Creatures:
Dragons | Helloi | Hingchabi | Keibu Keioiba | Khoirentak tiger | Samadon Ayangba | Uchek Langmeidong
Mythical and Sacred Places:
Lai Lamlen | Khamnung | Kangla | Mt. Koupalu | Nongmaiching Hills | Thangching Hills

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References

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  337. https://www.google.com/search?q=L%C4%81ngjakhei+the+sun&client=ms-android-xiaomi-rev1&biw=360&bih=592&tbm=bks&sxsrf=ALeKk03A9N6NVFYZiUYSMX7mAWtSIHZjUg%3A1619791990977&ei=dhCMYPmCO6Daz7sPmLmokA8&oq=L%C4%81ngjakhei+the+sun&gs_lcp=Cg9tb2JpbGUtZ3dzLXNlcnAQAzoECCMQJzoFCCEQoAE6BwghEAoQoAFQywxY6B1guyBoAHAAeACAAckDiAHXEpIBBzItNS4yLjGYAQCgAQGqARltb2JpbGUtZ3dzLXdpei1zZXJwLW1vZGVzwAEB&sclient=mobile-gws-serp
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