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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1490s 1500s 1510s – 1520s – 1530s 1540s 1550s|
|Years:||1526 1527 1528 – 1529 – 1530 1531 1532|
- April 22 – Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297.5 leagues or 17° east of the Moluccas.
- March 7 or 9 – At the Battle of Shimbra Kure, Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi, with 200 men armed with matchlocks, defeats the army of Lebna Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia.
- May 10 – The Turkish army under Suleiman I leaves Constantinople to once again invade Hungary.
- August 5 – Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor sign the Treaty of Cambrai
- September 8 – Recapture of Buda by the invading Turkish forces.
- September 8 – The city of Maracaibo in Venezuela is founded by Ambrosius Ehinger.
- September 23 – Vienna is besieged by Turkish forces.
- October 15 – With the season growing late, Suleiman abandons the siege.
- Emperor Charles V and Francis I of France sign the Treaty of Cambrai, or the "Ladies' Peace". Francis abandons his claims in Italy, but is allowed to retain Burgundy.
- Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, fails to bring about the divorce and annulment Henry VIII had sought and is forced to resign.
- Aylesbury is granted the county town of Buckinghamshire in England by King Henry VIII.
- Stephen Báthory becomes governor of Transylvania.
- Boromrajathira IV succeeds Rama Thibodi II as king of Ayutthaya.
- Fluorine is first described by Georg Agricola.
- Giorgio Vasari visits Rome.
- Pietro Bembo becomes historiographer of Venice.
- Heinrich Bullinger becomes pastor of Bremgarten.
- Diet of Speyer takes place.