Portugal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Portuguese Republic
República Portuguesa
Anthem: "A Portuguesa"
"The Portuguese Anthem"
Location of  Portugal  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Lisbon
38°46′N 9°9′W / 38.767°N 9.15°W / 38.767; -9.15
Official languages Portuguese
Recognised regional languages Mirandese1
Ethnic groups (2007) 96.87% Portuguese and 3.13% other ethnicities (Cape Verdeans, Brazilians, Ukrainians, Goans, Angolans, etc.)
Demonym Portuguese
Government Unitary parliamentary republic
 -  President Aníbal Cavaco Silva (PSD)
 -  Prime Minister Pedro Passos Coelho (PSD)
 -  Assembly President Assunção Esteves (PSD)
Formation Conventional date for Independence is 1139
 -  Founding 868 
 -  Re-founding 1095 
 -  De facto sovereignty 24 June 1128 
 -  Kingdom 25 July 1139 
 -  Recognized 5 October 1143 
 -  Papal Recognition 23 May 1179 
 -  Restoration of independence 1 December 1640 
 -  Restoration of independence recognized 13 February 1668 
 -  Republic 5 October 1910 
 -  Democracy 25 April 1974 
Area
 -  Total 92,090 km2 (110th)
35,645 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.5
Population
 -  2011 estimate 10,647,763[1] (77th)
 -  2011 census 10,555,853[2]
 -  Density 115/km2 (96th)
298/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $247.037 billion[3] (48th)
 -  Per capita $23,222[3] (39th)
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $229.336 billion[3] (37th)
 -  Per capita $21,558[3] (32nd)
Gini (2009) 33.7[4]
medium
HDI (2011) Increase 0.809[5]
very high · 41st
Currency Euro ()2 (EUR)
Time zone WET (UTC+0)
 -  Summer (DST) WEST (UTC+1)
Date format dd-mm-yyyy, yyyy-mm-dd, yyyy/mm/dd
Drives on the right
Calling code 351
Internet TLD .pt
1. Mirandese, spoken in some villages of the municipality of Miranda do Douro, was officially recognized in 1999 (Lei n.° 7/99 de 29 de Janeiro), since then awarding an official right-of-use Mirandese to the linguistic minority it is concerned.[6] The Portuguese Sign Language is also recognized.
2. Before 1999: Portuguese escudo.

Portugal is a country in Southern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east.

Three groups of islands in the Atlantic Ocean are also part of Portugal: the Azores (Açores), Madeira and the Savage Isles (Ilhas Selvagens). The Savage Isles are a small group of islands with nobody on them, controlled by Madeira. Portugal claims that Olivença is also part of its territory, but actually it is controlled by Spain.

History[change | change source]

Portugal became its own kingdom in 1139 but was not officially recognized until 1143. The border with Spain has been almost the same since the 13th century. Fishing and trade with other countries are important here.

Portugal was important in world exploration for two reasons. Henry the Navigator, a prince from Portugal, was very interested in exploration. Inventions in navigation led to a bigger knowledge of geography.

This world exploration began the Portuguese Empire. Portugal was a world power during the 15th and 16th centuries. However, it lost a lot of money soon after this. The city of Lisbon was destroyed in an earthquake in 1755. The country was occupied during the Napoleonic Wars. It lost its largest colony, Brazil, in 1822.

In 1910, Portugal became a Republic, and in 1926, a military group took control of the country from the Portuguese 1st Republic. This began a time of rule by fascist governments that lasted until 1974. That year, a peaceful left-wing army coup, called the Carnation Revolution, happened. The coup changed how the country was run.

The next year, Portugal allowed its colonies in Africa to be on their own: Mozambique, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde and São Tomé and Príncipe.

East Timor in Asia declared itself independent from Portugal on 28 November 1975, and was invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces nine days later.

Portugal went into the European Union in 1986. Another Asian colony, Macau, became part of China again in December 1999.

Culture[change | change source]

The main language of Portugal is Portuguese.

Some famous Portuguese people are D. Afonso Henriques, Henry the Navigator, Bartolomeu Dias, Vasco da Gama, Pedro Álvares Cabral, Ferdinand Magellan, Luís de Camões, Fernando Pessoa, Amália Rodrigues, Álvaro Siza Vieira, Eduardo Souto de Moura.

Luís de Camões wrote the national poem of Portugal. It is called Os Lusíadas and was written in 1572.[7]

Other pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]