Brazil

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Federative Republic of Brazil
República Federativa do Brasil  (Portuguese)
Flag
Motto: "Ordem e Progresso"
(Portuguese)
"Order and Progress"
Anthem: Hino Nacional Brasileiro
(Portuguese)
"Brazilian National Anthem"
National seal
Selo Nacional do Brasil National Seal of Brazil (color).svg
Capital Brasília
15°45′S 47°57′W / 15.75°S 47.95°W / -15.75; -47.95
Largest city São Paulo
Official languages Portuguese[1]
Ethnic groups (2010[2]) 47.73% White
43.13% Brown (Multiracial)
7.61% Black
1.09% Asian
0.43% Amerindian
Demonym Brazilian
Government Federal presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Dilma Rousseff (PT)
 -  Vice President Michel Temer (PMDB)
 -  President of the Chamber of Deputies Marco Maia (PT)
 -  President of the Senate José Sarney (PMDB)
 -  Chief Justice Cezar Peluso
Legislature National Congress
 -  Upper house Federal Senate
 -  Lower house Chamber of Deputies
Independence from Portugal
 -  Declared 7 September 1822 
 -  Recognized 29 August 1825 
 -  Republic 15 November 1889 
 -  Current constitution 5 October 1988 
Area
 -  Total 8,514,877 km2 (5th)
3,287,597 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.65
Population
 -  2013 census 201,032,714 [3] (5th)
 -  Density 23.6/km2 (182nd)
57/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $2.172 trillion[4]
 -  Per capita $11,239[4]
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $2.090 trillion[4]
 -  Per capita $10,816[4]
Gini (2010) 53.6[5]
high
HDI (2011) 0.718[6]
high · 84th
Currency Real (R$) ([[ISO 4217|BRL]])
Time zone BRT[7] (UTC-2 to -4[7])
 -  Summer (DST) BRST (UTC-2 to -4)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Drives on the right
Calling code +55
Internet TLD .br

Brazil (officially called Federative Republic of Brazil; how to say: IPA: [bɾɐˈziw]) is a country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country. The country has about 201 million people. The capital of Brazil is Brasília.

History[change | change source]

The first people to come to Brazil came around 9,000 B.C. That group of people is often called the South American Indians. But they did not come from India. They probably came from the north. Some of them were hunters and gatherers, but others were farmers.[8]

Pedro Álvares Cabral was the first European to see Brazil. He saw it in 1500. He was from Portuguese and the Portuguese government claimed Brazil. Soon, explorers explored the whole coastline of Brazil and colonies were set up. In the late 1500s and early 1600s the Dutch and the French would sometimes try to take land in Brazil. Brazilians started moving inland farther than the Treaty of Tordesillas said they could. This caused some fights with the Spaniards and native people in the area.[8]

In 1822, Brazil claimed to be its own country and not a part of Portugal anymore. Soon there was civil war. But the ruler Pedro II improved the economy, and in 1888, he freed the slaves. In 1889, there was a military coup and Pedro II had to leave the country.[8]

In 1889, Brazil became a republic. It was not very democratic, because the only people who could vote where people who owned land. There were some uprisings in the 1920s because some people thought the government was unfairly helping coffee growers. Brazil joined the Allies during World War II.[8]

During the 1960s, the leader Castelo Branco made the government like a dictatorship. Since then, the country has become more democratic, but some people feel that there are still big problems in health and education.

Languages[change | change source]

Most people in Brazil speak Portuguese. Brazil is the only country in Latin America that speaks Portuguese.

Some people in Brazil speak German dialects. That came from German immigrants. 0.8% of Brazilians speak German as their first language.

Other people in Brazil speak indigenous Brazilian languages, Italian, Japanese, French, or Spanish. Guaraní and Aymará are the first languages of a small number of Brazilians.

Geography[change | change source]

Brazil has the world's largest rainforest, the Amazon Rainforest. It makes up 40% of the country's land area. Brazil also has other types of land, including a type of savanna called cerrado, and a dry plant region named caatinga.

The most important cities are Brasília (the capital), Belém, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Goiânia, Manaus, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, São Paulo (the biggest city) and Vitória. Other cities are at List of largest cities in Brazil.

Brazil is divided into 26 states plus the Federal District in five regions (north, south, northeast, southeast and centre-west):

  • North: Acre, Amazonas, Rondônia, Roraima, Pará, Amapá, Tocantins
  • Northeast: Maranhão, Pernambuco, Ceará, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Alagoas, Sergipe, Bahia
  • Centre-West: Goiás, Mato grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Distrito Federal/ Federal District
  • Southeast: São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais
  • South: Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul

The country is the fifth largest in the world by area. It is known for its many rainforests and jungles. It is next to every country in South America except Chile and Ecuador.

People/culture[change | change source]

Brazil is the largest country in South America and the largest economy in Latin America. Its people include people of Portuguese or other European descent, African descent, and native Amerindians, as well as many people of mixed origins. Brazil also has the biggest number of Japanese descendents outside Japan.

People from Brazil are called Brazilians[9] (brasileiros in Brazilian Portuguese language).

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "Demographics". Brazilian Government. 2011. http://www.brasil.gov.br/sobre/brazil/brazil-in-numbers/demographics. Retrieved 2011-10-08. (English)
  2. Caracteristicas da População e dos Domicílios do Censo Demográfico 2010 — Cor ou raça
  3. "IBGE | Sala de imprensa | notícias | IBGE releases the population estimates of the municipalities in 2012". Saladeimprensa.ibge.gov.br. http://saladeimprensa.ibge.gov.br/en/noticias?view=noticia&id=1&busca=1&idnoticia=2204. Retrieved 2013-06-04.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Brazil". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2011&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=223&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=25&pr.y=4. Retrieved 2011-04-21.
  5. Caracteristicas da População e dos Domicílios do Censo Demográfico 2010 — Rendimento
  6. UNDP Human Development Report 2011. "Table 1: Human development index 2011 and its components" (PDF). UNDP. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Table1.pdf. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Hora Legal Brasileira". Observatório Nacional. Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. http://web.archive.org/web/20110722173247/http://pcdsh01.on.br/Fusbr.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-21.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 "Brazil". Encyclopaedia Britannica. http://school.eb.com/levels/high/article/106094. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
  9. "WordNet Search - 3.0". wordnetweb.princeton.edu. 2011 [last update]. http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=brazilian. Retrieved 3 February 2011.