Canada

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Canada
Vertical triband (red, white, red) with a red maple leaf in the centre A shield of four rectangles over a triangle. The first rectangle contains three lions passant guardant in gold on red; the second, a red lion rampant on gold; the third, a gold harp on blue; the fourth, three gold fleurs-de-lis on blue. The triangle contains three red maple leaves on a white background. A gold helmet sits on top of the shield, upon which is a crowned lion holding a red maple leaf. On the right is a lion rampant flying the British flag. On the left is a unicorn flying the fleurs-de-lis. A red ribbon around the shield says "desiderantes meliorem patriam". Below it is a blue scroll inscribed "A mari usque ad mare" on a wreath of flowers.
Flag
Motto: "A Mari Usque Ad Mare" (Latin)
"From Sea to Sea"
Anthem: "O Canada"
Royal anthem"God Save the Queen"[1][2]
Projection of North America with Canada in green
Capital Ottawa
45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.4°N 75.667°W / 45.4; -75.667
Largest city Toronto
Official languages English
French
Recognised
regional languages
[3]
Chipewyan
Cree
Gwich'in
Inuinnaqtun
Inuktitut
Inuvialuktun
Slavey (North / South)
Tłįchǫ
Demonym Canadian
Government Federal parliamentary
democracy
under
constitutional monarchy[4]
 -  Monarch Elizabeth II
 -  Governor General David Johnston
 -  Prime Minister Stephen Harper
 -  Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house House of Commons
Establishment from the United Kingdom
 -  Constitution Act July 1, 1867 
 -  Statute of Westminster December 11, 1931 
 -  Canada Act April 17, 1982 
Area
 -  Total 9,984,670 km2 (2nd)
3,854,085 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 8.92 (891,163 km2 / 344,080 mi2)
Population
 -  2011 census 33,476,688[5] (35th)
 -  Density 3.41/km2 (228th)
8.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2013 estimate
 -  Total $1.535 trillion[6] (13th)
 -  Per capita $43,594[6] (9th)
GDP (nominal) 2013 estimate
 -  Total $1.844 trillion[6] (11th)
 -  Per capita $52,364[6] (10th)
Gini (2005) 32.1[7]
medium · 103rdUNIQ76ce0ef3df8c98de-nowiki-0000001F-QINU8UNIQ76ce0ef3df8c98de-nowiki-00000020-QINU
HDI (2013) Increase 0.911[9]
very high · 11th
Currency Canadian dollar ($) (CAD)
Time zone (UTC−3.5 to −8)
 -  Summer (DST)  (UTC−2.5 to −7)
Date format
  • dd-mm-yyyy
  • mm-dd-yyyy
  • yyyy-mm-dd (CE)
Drives on the right
Calling code +1
Internet TLD .ca

Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. It is bordered by the United States of America both to the south and to the west (Alaska). By area, Canada is the second largest country in the world. Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. Ottawa is the capital of Canada.[10]

Geography[change | change source]

Canada is the second largest country in the world in land area, after Russia. It has the longest border with water (coastline) of any country in the world. It is next to the Pacific, Arctic, and Atlantic Oceans.

Canada is made up of ten provinces and three territories.

Canada has six time zones.[11] It extends from the west coast, across the prairies and central Canada, to the Atlantic provinces. In the north there are three territories, stretching between Alaska and Greenland. Four of the five Great Lakes (Superior, Huron, Erie, and Ontario) are shared between Canada and the United States (Lake Michigan is in the USA), and they make up 16% of the Earth's fresh water. The St. Lawrence Seaway joins the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean, allowing ocean going vessels to travel as far inland as Thunder Bay in Ontario, Canada.

Canada shares land and sea borders with the USA (the lower 48 states and Alaska), Denmark (Greenland), and France (St. Pierre and Miquelon — a small group of islands off the southern coast off the island of Newfoundland).

The geography of Canada is very different from place to place, from high alpine areas in the west, flat grasslands and prairies in the centre, and ancient shield rocks in the east. Canada contains some of the very last untouched boreal forest in the world.

The Canadian or Laurentian Shield is a vast area of ancient pre-cambrian rocks lying in an arc around Hudson Bay, covering more than one third of Canada's land area. This is a unique land of lakes, bogs, swamps, trees, and rocks. It is a terrain that is very dangerous and difficult to traverse cross country because of lakes, bogs, swamps, trees, and rocks.

History[change | change source]

Native people lived in what is now Canada for thousands of years before the first Europeans arrived. They are known as the First Nations and the Inuit people. The Métis have part First Nations and part European backgrounds.

The Vikings were the first Europeans known to land in Canada, in what is now Newfoundland, led by the Viking explorer Leif Erikson. They did not stay there long, however. In the early 16th century, Europeans started exploring Canada's eastern coast, beginning with John Cabot from England in 1497, and later Jacques Cartier in 1534 from France. Alexander Mackenzie later reached the Pacific coast over land, where captains James Cook and George Vancouver went by sea. The Europeans also traded beaver furs to the First Nations.

Parts of Canada were settled by France, and parts by England and Scotland. In 1605, Port Royal was built in Acadia (today called Nova Scotia) by the French, led by Samuel de Champlain, and in 1608 he started settling Quebec. The British took control of the French areas after a battle on the Plains of Abraham near Quebec City in 1759.

After the American Revolutionary War, many people in the new United States wanted to stay loyal to Britain. Thousands came north to Canada and settled in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario. They were called United Empire Loyalists. During the War of 1812, the United States tried to conquer Canada but were defeated.

On July 1, 1867, Canada was united under a federal government. It included the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Sir John A. Macdonald was the first prime minister. Manitoba, the Yukon territory, and the Northwest Territories became part of Canada in 1870. British Columbia joined in 1871, and Prince Edward Island in 1873.

There were two Red River Rebellions, in 1869-70 and 1885, both led by Louis Riel. He fought for more rights for the Métis people, a mix between French and First Nations. A railroad across the country, the Canadian Pacific Railway, finished in 1885, made it easier for Canadians to move to the west. Many Europeans came to the prairies, so Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905.

Canadian soldiers fought in World War I for the British Empire. More Canadians died in this war than any other war. Canada became better known as a country after its success in capturing Vimy Ridge from the Germans in France in 1917. Women were given the right to vote by the end of the war, partly because of the help they gave making weapons while the men fought in Europe. In 1931, Canada became fully independent. From 1931 on the Government of Canada made all decisions about Canada.

Canadians also fought in World War II. The Dieppe Raid in 1942 went very badly and most of the soldiers were killed, wounded, or taken prisoner. Canadians were important in 1944 at Normandy, and they liberated the Netherlands (freed it from the Germans).

In 1949, Newfoundland and Labrador became the 10th province of Canada. In 1956, Canadian Lester Pearson, who later became prime minister, helped end the Suez Crisis. As a result, he won the Nobel Peace Prize. In 1965, Pearson helped Canada get a new flag, the Maple Leaf. Before that, Canadians had used the Red Ensign. In 1982, Canada changed its constitution, including a new Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The main part of the Constitution is still the 1867 British North America Act.

Some French Canadians today wish to form their own country, separate from the rest of Canada. The province of Quebec held a referendum (vote) in 1980, but only about 40% wanted to separate. Another referendum was held in 1995, with almost 50% voting in favour of leaving Canada.

Today, about 25% of Canadians speak French as their first language. Many people can speak both French and English. Although most French Canadians live in the province of Quebec, there are French-speaking communities and people all across Canada. For example, 40% of the people in the province of New Brunswick and 20% of those in Manitoba have a strong French background, as do some people in Ontario, mainly along its border with Quebec.

In 1999, Nunavut was created as Canada's third territory, out of the eastern Northwest Territories, in an agreement with the Inuit people.

After-tax middle-class incomes in Canada now appear to be higher than in the United States.[12]

Government[change | change source]

Canada has a government called a constitutional monarchy[13]. It has a monarch (meaning a king or queen is the head of that country), and is a democracy (meaning the people of that country rule it). The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who is officially the Queen of Canada. She appoints a Governor General to represent her in the country, however, the choice of Governor General is made by the prime minister.

The Queen's powers are mostly exercised by the Governor General, currently David Johnston. The Governor General, like the Canadian sovereign (King/Queen of Canada), is not political and remains above politics, and because of that they do not usually use their powers without the advice of the Prime Minister or other ministers.

The head of government is the Prime Minister. The current prime minister is Stephen Harper,[14] who replaced Paul Martin Jr. in January of 2006. Each province and territory has a premier to lead its government. The day-to-day operations of the government are run by the cabinet. The cabinet is usually formed from the largest party in Parliament.

The Parliament of Canada passes the laws of the country. The governor general, acting on behalf of the monarch, has the right to veto a law (meaning the law cannot go into effect) but this right has not been used for some time. There are five main parties in the Canadian Parliament: the Conservative Party, the New Democratic Party, the Liberal Party, the Bloc Québécois, and the Green Party. In addition to the five parties with MPs in Parliament, there are fourteen other smaller parties registered with Elections Canada and several MPs who sit as Independents.

Climate and its influence[change | change source]

Many people from other parts of the world think of Canada as a very cold and snowy place. While it is true that much of Canada is very far north, most Canadians live in the southern parts, where the weather is much milder. Nearly two Canadians in three live less than 100 kilometres (62 mi) from the U.S. border.[15] In some cities the temperature can get very cold in the winter, especially in the inland.[16] Warm air systems moving in from the Pacific Ocean bring more rain than snow to the Pacific coast, while colder temperatures further inland do result in snow. Most of Canada can get quite hot in the summer, often over 30 degrees Celsius.[17]

Canadians are known to play winter sports such as ice hockey and skiing and snowboarding, and also enjoy many summer sports and games.

Natural resources[change | change source]

Canada has lots of natural resources. Its large amounts of fish have been used for centuries for food and money. Hydroelectric power (electricity by water) is abundant because of Canada's many rivers.[18] Forests of the west are used for wood. Besides these renewable resources, Canada has metal ores and oil deposits.

Demographics[change | change source]

Around 35 million people live in Canada. This is almost the same number as in the U.S. state of California. Most people live in the southern parts of Canada.

A large number of immigrants from almost every part of the world come to live in Canada.[19] One example is the former Governor General of Canada, Michaëlle Jean, who came to Canada as a young child with her family from Haiti in 1968.

References[change | change source]

  1. Department of Canadian Heritage. "Royal anthem 'God Save The Queen'". Queen's Printer. http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/symbl/godsave-eng.cfm. Retrieved 2011-05-23.
  2. Kallmann, Helmut. "National and royal anthems". In Marsh, James Harley. Encyclopedia of Music in Canada. Historica-Dominion. http://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=U1ARTU0002533. Retrieved 2011-05-23.
  3. (PDF) Official Languages Act. Government of the Northwest Territories. 2004. p. 4. http://www.nwtlanguagescommissioner.ca/pdf/Official_Languages_act.pdf. Retrieved 2012-11-27.
  4. Hail, M; Lange, S (February 25, 2010). "Federalism and Representation in the Theory of the Founding Fathers: A Comparative Study of US and Canadian Constitutional Thought". Publius: the Journal of Federalism 40 (3): 366–388. doi:10.1093/publius/pjq001.
  5. "2011 Census: Population and dwelling counts". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2012. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/120208/dq120208a-eng.htm?WT.mc_id=twtB2000. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "World Economic Outlook: Canada". International Monetary Fund. April 2013 data. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2013/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=92&pr.y=5&sy=2011&ey=2018&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=156&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLUR%2CLP&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 2013-04-17.
  7. "Distribution of family income – Gini index". World Factbook. CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2172.html. Retrieved 2009-09-01.
  8. "Country Comparison: Distribution Of Family Income – Gini Index". World Factbook. CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2172rank.html. Retrieved 2013-05-01.
  9. "2013 Human Development Index and its components – Statistics" (PDF). UNDP. 2013. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR2013_EN_Statistics.pdf. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  10. [http;canadaonline.about.com/od/ontario/a/ottawa.htm "About.com:Canada Online"]. http;canadaonline.about.com/od/ontario/a/ottawa.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-17.
  11. Canada's Time Zones
  12. The American Middle Class Is No Longer the World’s Richest April 22, 2014 New York Times
  13. Amanda, Briney. "About.com: geography and overview of Canada". http://geography.about.com/od/atlas/a/canada.html. Retrieved 2010-11-12.
  14. Official Government of Canada website. "PRIME MINISTER OF CANADA". http://pm.gc.ca/eng/pm.asp. Retrieved 2010-11-17.
  15. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-550/vignettes/a1-eng.cfm
  16. http://www40.statcan.ca/l01/cst01/phys08b-eng.htm
  17. http://www.cfls-elfc.forces.gc.ca/canada/weather-temps-eng.asp
  18. "Natural Resources Canada". http://nrcan.gc.ca/eneene/sources/eleele/index-eng.php. Retrieved 2010-11-17.
  19. Ayabe Hisao; Iino Syouko (2003). Canadawosirutameno60syou(60 chapters about Canada). Tokyo: Akaisi. pp. 314.

Other websites[change | change source]