American football

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Men playing American football

American Football ( just called football in the USA) is a team sport played by two teams of people with 11 players on each side. It is played with a ball that is pointed at both ends. Points are scored in many ways, usually by one team getting the ball into the end zone of the other team.

Gameplay[change | change source]

The main leagues that play American football (usually just referred to as "football" in America) are the professional National Football League, and the National Collegiate Athletic Association, which plays college football. In the National Football League, players are paid millions of dollars. In the National Collegiate Athletic Association, players simply play for the pride of their school, or for the chance to join a team to play for millions of dollars. Over a million boys (and a small number of girls) play high school football, also for school pride. There is also a closely related sport called Canadian football.

A football game is played with a ball called a football. The sport is played on a grass (or artificial turf) field, exactly 360 feet (120 yards) long and 160 feet (53⅓ yards) wide. The end zones, one at each end of the field, are 10 yards long. The players wear protective equipment, including a helmet with facemask, shoulder pads, thigh pads, and often a mouth guard. A team has four chances, or "downs", to advance the ball 10 yards while the opposing team tries to stop it. Certain players advance the ball by carrying or throwing it. Teams can score by advancing the ball to the other team's end zone or by kicking the ball through a goalpost placed at the back of the end zone. American football is carefully regulated by time and rules, which are enforced by officials, who also determine when a team scores.

A college or professional football game is 60 minutes long, and is divided into 15-minute quarters. In high schools, the quarters are 12 minutes long, and games for younger children are often shorter still. After the first two quarters, the teams rest for a few minutes during halftime.

In NFL football, if the game is tied after the four quarters, the two teams compete in at least one more 15-minute period called overtime. During overtime, the first team to score points is usually the winner. However, under the current rules, first used for the 2011 postseason, if the team that has the ball first ends its possession by scoring a field goal, the other team gets a chance to score. If that team does not score, or if it scores a touchdown, the game ends. If it scores a field goal, the game continues, and the next team to score wins. During the regular season, only one overtime period is played—if neither team scores, or if both teams score field goals when they first have the ball, the game ends in a tie. During the playoffs, the game will continue with as many overtime periods as needed to decide a winner. If the game is tied after each team has had the ball once in overtime, the first team to score wins.

In NCAA football overtime, which is based on the system used for high school football in most U.S. states, the teams take turns trying to score. The game ends when one team scores, and the other team fails to score as many points during its chance.

Field[change | change source]

An American football field.

American football is played on a field 120 yards long by 53⅓ yards wide. Most of the game is played on 100 yards in the middle. It is divided by 20 lines drawing every 5 yards. The field has two other sets of markings, running between the two end zones along the length of the field, known as "hashmarks". All plays must start between the hashmarks—if the last play ended outside the hashmarks, the ball is moved to the nearest hashmark. At the ends of the field there are scoring areas, called the end zones.

There are also two yellow poles on the end of each field called uprights. Sometimes, if the team can not score a touchdown they might want to kick it though the uprights for three points. The uprights are also used for scoring one point after a team scored a touchdown.

Players[change | change source]

There are many types of players on a football team. For the offensive part of the team, a quarterback throws the football to wide receivers while offensive linemen block to protect him from defensive players. The offensive linemen also block when a running back runs to advance the football. Players on the Defensive line, a linebacker, and defensive backs (cornerbacks and American football safeties) attempt to tackle the offensive player who carries the football. Some team members only play during certain times. These players belong to the Special Teams. The kicker can kick the ball to the other team or between the uprights, while the placeholder holds the ball steady. The kick returner runs the ball down the field in an attempt to score points after catching the ball.

American Professional Seasons[change | change source]

Exhibition season[change | change source]

An American Football ball

Exhibition season (better known as Pre-Season) is in August. In the exhibition season, the teams get ready for the regular season by having training. Teams have practices to help the team get better and see who will make the team. All of the teams play 4 games before the regular season starts, and the games do not change what team gets to the post season. Because of it, teams do not use their best players much, and use the games as more practice.

Regular season[change | change source]

The 32 NFL teams are divided into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). Each of them is divided in four divisions: North, South, West and East. Each division includes four teams. The season lasts 17 weeks. Each team plays 16 games and has one week off. This week of rest is called a "bye week".

NFL playoffs[change | change source]

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At the end of the regular season, the best 6 NFC teams and the best 6 AFC teams play in a tournament. NFC's champion and AFC's champion play the NFL's final game, the Super Bowl which is the great American event. The event is often treated as a National holiday as many stores close for the event. The day of the event is commonly known nation wide as Super Bowl Sunday.

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