Diamond

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Diamond
Rough diamond.jpg
The strange octahedral shape of this diamond is normal.
General
Category Native Minerals
Chemical formula C
Identification
Molecular Weight 12.01 g⋅mol−1
Color Typically yellow, brown or gray to colorless. Less often blue, green, black, translucent white, pink, violet, orange, purple and red.
Crystal habit Octahedral
Crystal system Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic)
Cleavage 111 (perfect in four directions)
Fracture Conchoidal (shell-like)
Mohs Scale hardness 10
Luster Adamantine
Polish luster Adamantine
Refractive index 2.418 (at 500 nm)
Optical Properties Isotropic
Birefringence None
Dispersion 0.044
Pleochroism None
Streak Colorless
Specific gravity 3.52±0.01
Density 3.5–3.53 g/cm3
Melting point Pressure dependent
Diaphaneity Transparent to subtransparent to translucent
References [1][2]

A diamond (from the ancient Greek αδάμας – adámas "unbreakable") is a re-arrangement of carbon atoms; those are also called allotropes. Diamonds have the highest hardness of any bulk (all one type) material. Because of this, many important industries use diamonds as tools for cutting and polishing things. Many of them are clear, but some of them have colors, like yellow, red, blue, green and pink. Diamonds of a different color are called "fancies". Big diamonds are very rare, and are worth a lot of money. This is because a diamond is very useful - it is very hard and it spreads light very well. There are natural and synthetic diamonds. The earth makes natural diamonds. People make synthetic diamonds. Diamonds are the hardest natural substance known to man.

Diamonds are actually made of pure carbon, the same chemical element as graphite, fullerene, and coal. But diamonds are very hard and in crystalline form.

Because many diamonds are beautiful, people make jewellery using them.

Diamonds are very effective electrical insulators, but also very good conductors of heat.

On mohs scale of mineral hardness, diamonds are scored as 10 (the highest score possible).

Diamonds are made deep in the earth, where there is an intense amount of pressure and heat that makes the diamond form. The intense heat and pressure is forming the liquid ore to make volcanic eruptions which surfaces and becomes diamond crystals. (This makes the diamond a metamorphic rock.) Sometimes magma (very hot, liquid rock deep in the earth) having diamonds will come near the top of a volcano. People find diamonds where volcanoes were a long time ago. Sometimes people find diamonds on the top of the ground. But in places like South Africa, they must dig deep down into a diamond mine to get diamonds. Diamonds were first found in India.

References[change | edit source]

  1. "Diamond". Mindat. http://www.mindat.org/min-1282.html. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
  2. "Diamond". WebMineral. http://webmineral.com/data/Diamond.shtml. Retrieved 2009-07-07.

Other websites[change | edit source]