Emotion

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Emotions
Basic

Anger
Fear
Sadness
Happiness
Disgust
Surprise

Others

Aggression
Apathy
Anxiety
Boredom
Contempt
Depression
Doubt
Ecstasy
Empathy
Envy
Embarrassment
Euphoria
Frustration
Gratitude
Grief
Guilt
Hatred
Hope
Horror
Hostility
Hunger
Hysteria
Loneliness
Love
Paranoia
Pity
Pleasure
Pride
Rage
Regret
Remorse
Shame
Suffering
Sympathy

Emotions are what people feel. In terms of evolution, they are very ancient, and can be seen in all mammals. They are caused by a complex mixture of hormones and the unconscious mind. Only with great difficulty can we control our emotions by conscious effort. They cause mammals to change behaviour according to changes in their situation. In our case they sometimes run against our attempt to live our lives in a logical way.

A scientific definition is not simple;over 90 definitions have been offered by experts.[1] A definition of emotion needs to includes three things:

  1. conscious experience (feelings)
  2. expressions which can be seen by others
  3. actions of the body ('physiological arousal')

Here is one definition:

"Emotion is a complex psychological phenomenon which occurs as animals or people live their lives. Emotions involve physiological arousal, appraisal of the situation, expressive behaviours, and conscious experience. Emotion is associated with feeling, mood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation".[2][3]

In physical terms, emotions involve body systems which have operated for hundreds of millions of years. These are the hormone system, the autonomic nervous system and the 'lower' brain centres (hindbrain and midbrain).

Function of emotions[change | change source]

Figure 21, "Horror and Agony", from a photograph by Guillaume Duchenne (more images)

The study of emotions became one of Darwin's books after the The Descent of Man. He published The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals in 1873. He had discovered, by sending letters and a questionnaire worldwide, that in different societies emotions were expressed in almost the same way.[4][5]

If so, the mechanisms which made the expressions must be inherited. They must have been developed in the same way as all other features of man, evolution by natural selection. It was already known from anatomy that the muscles and nerves of the face were the same or similar in all humans.

Darwin illustrated the expression of the emotions with a series of photographs and woodcut illustrations. Ekman did the same thing on a research visit to New Guinea, where he asked villagers to identify the emotions shown in the photographs.[6] This was part of a long-term effort to test and extend Darwin's insights into emotions.[7][8][9][10] Some of Ekman's conclusions are: [10]

  1. Micro expressions last only a fraction of a second. They occur when people conceal their feelings. (p15, p222)
  2. Emotions are autoappraisers, reactions to matters which seem to be very important to our welfare. (p21)
  3. Emotions often begin so quickly that we are not aware of the processes in our mind which set them off. (p21)
  4. Autoappraisers scan for events which are critical to our welfare and survival. (p23)
  5. Our evolutionary heritage makes a major contribution to the shaping of our emotional responses. (p26)
  6. The desire to experience or not to experience an emotion motivates much of our behaviour. (p217)
  7. An efficient signal – clear, rapid and universal – informs others of how the emotional person is feeling. (p217)

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. Robert Plutchik 2001. The nature of emotions. American Scientist
  2. Frijda 1992. The laws of emotions.
  3. Myers, David G. 2004. Theories of emotion in Psychology. 7th ed, Worth, New York.
  4. Charles Darwin (1873) 1999. The expression of the emotions in man and animals, edited by Paul Ekman. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-255866-1
  5. Review of this edition: Eric Korn 1998. [1]
  6. Ekman P. 1980. The face of man: expressions of universal emotions in a New Guinea village. New York: Garland.
  7. Ekman P. (ed) 1973. Darwin and facial expression: a century of research in review. New York: Academic Press.
  8. Ekman P. & Friesen W.P. 1984. Unmasking the face. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  9. Ekman P. & Rosenberg E.L. (eds) 1997. What the face reveals: basic and applied studies of spontaneous expression using the facial action coding system (FACS). Oxford University Press.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Ekman P. 2003. Emotions revealed: understanding faces and feelings. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-7538-1785-0