Kingdom (biology)

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Kingdom is the highest rank, after the domain, which is normally used in the biological taxonomy of all organisms. Each kingdom is split into phyla.

There are 5 kingdoms in taxonomy. Every living thing comes under one of these 5 kingdoms and some symbionts, such as lichen, come under two. They are:

Summary[change | edit source]

Linnaeus
1735
2 kingdoms
Haeckel
1866
3 kingdoms
Chatton
1937
2 empires
Copeland
1956
4 kingdoms
Whittaker
1969
5 kingdoms
Woese et al.
1977
6 kingdoms
Woese et al.
1990[1]
3 domains
(not treated) Protista Prokaryota Monera Monera Eubacteria Bacteria
Archaebacteria Archaea
Eukaryota Protoctista Protista Protista Eukarya
Vegetabilia Plantae Fungi Fungi
Plantae Plantae Plantae
Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia

Sometimes entries in the table, which are next to each other, do not match perfectly. For example, Haeckel placed the red algae (Haeckel's Florideae; modern Rhodophyta) and blue-green algae (Haeckel's Archephyta; modern Cyanobacteria) in his Plantae, but in modern classifications they are considered protists and bacteria respectively. However, despite this and other failures of equivalence, the table gives a useful simplification.

References[change | edit source]

  1. Carl Woese, Otto Kandler, Mark Wheelis 1990. "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya". doi:10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576