Kingdom of Romania
|Kingdom of Romania
Nihil Sine Deo
"Nothing without God"
"Long live the King"
(1881–1916 / 1918–1947)
|Government||Constitutional Monarchy (1881–1938, 1944-1947)
Military Dictatorship (1941-1944)
Single-party Fascist State (1938-1941)
|- 1881–1914||Carol I|
|- 1914–1927||Ferdinand I|
|- 1927–1930||Michael I (1st reign)|
|- 1930–1940||Carol II|
|- 1940–1947||Michael I (2nd reign)|
|- 1881||Ion Brătianu (first)|
|- 1940–1944||Ion Antonescu[a]|
|- 1946–1947||Petru Groza (last)|
|- Upper house||Senate|
|- Lower house||Chamber of Deputies|
|Historical era||Belle Époque / World War I / Interwar period / World War II|
|- Proclamation||14 March 1881|
|- Treaty of Trianon||4 June 1920|
|- Constitution adopted||29 March 1923|
|- Coup d'etat of 1944||23 August 1944|
|- Soviet occupation||12 September 1944|
|- Republic proclaimed||30 December 1947|
|- 1915[b]||138,000 km2 (53,282 sq mi)|
|- 1939[b]||295,049 km2 (113,919 sq mi)|
|- 1915[b] est.||7,900,000|
|Density||57.2 /km2 (148.3 /sq mi)|
|- 1939[b] est.||20,000,000|
|Density||67.8 /km2 (175.6 /sq mi)|
|Today part of|| Bulgaria
|a. ^ Was formally declared Conducător (literally, "Leader") of the state on 6 September 1940, by a royal decree which consecrated a ceremonial role for the monarch.
b. ^ Area and population according to Ioan Suciu, Istoria contemporana a României (1918–2005).
The Kingdom of Romania (or 'Romania' after 1969) was a constitutional monarchy which existed between 13 March 1881 and 30 December 1947, specified by the First (in 1866), and respectively, the Second Constitution of Roumania. Thus, the Kingdom of Romania began with the reign of King Carol I of Romania.
From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) to a full-fledged independent kingdom. During 1918-20, at the end of World War I, Transylvania, Eastern Moldavia (Bessarabia), and Bukovina were united with the Kingdom of Romania. In 1940, Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, Northern Transylvania and Southern Dobruja were ceded to the Soviet Union, Hungary and Bulgaria. In 1947 the last king was compelled to abdicate from throne. Socialist republic ruled by the Romanian Communist Party replaced the monarchy.
References[change | change source]
- "Constitutiunea din 1923" (in Romanian). Legislatie pentru Democratie. http://legislatie.resurse-pentru-democratie.org/const_1923.php. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- Dennis Deletant, Hitler's Forgotten Ally: Ion Antonescu and His Regime, Romania, 1940–1944, Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2006. ISBN 1-4039-9341-6
- Ioan Scurtu (2005). "Istoria contemporana a a României (1918-2005)" (in Romanian). Bucharest. http://www.scribd.com/doc/8031827/Scurtu-Ioan-Istoria-a-a-Romaniei-19182005. Retrieved 19 September 2011.