Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثاني Mahmud-ı sānī) (July 20, 1785 – July 1, 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He ruled from 1808 until his death. Mahmud was the son of Sultan Abdül Hamid I. His time as sultan is notable mostly for the major legal and military changes he caused.
Mahmud II was born in Istanbul. He enjoyed an efficient education as the other Sultans. He was 23 years old, he came to the throne. He was a precious personality that. By his cousin, Selim III was formed with scrupulous care. He was a calligraphy artist, composer and poet. He wrote under the pseudonym "Adli" poems. He was a brave, strong will, patient and prudent temperament. He replaced the military reorganization apart gone through the organization maintained by the governors of irregular auxiliaries (sekban - I Cedid). When the soldiers shortly after arose, he took up this club. The 1808 revolting insurgents killed Alemdar Mustafa Pasha. In 1812 the peace treaty was signed in Bucharest with the Russians. In 1813, the Wahhabis, who desecrated the holy places and shrines in Mecca and Medina and outrages practiced eradicated. They could now do no harm, to the Ottoman Empire zusammenstürtzte. In 1815 he founded the Arab thoroughbred stud Mahmudiye in Eskisehir. In 1821 the Greek revolution broke out, Thousands of the Balkans - Muslim civilians were killed by the Revolutiönären. In 1826 the Greek revolution could be suppressed. The Club of the Janissaries was extinguished completely by a popular uprising. Historians refer to this incident as a miracle-making process. In 1827 the war with Russia began again. In 1829 the peace treaty was concluded in Edirne. In the years 1831 and 1839, riots broke out in Egypt. In July of 1839 the Sultan Mahmud II died as the ill effects of life experienced by him calamitous events he was afflicted with tuberculosis and died. His body was buried in the Türbe in Divanyolu,(Ruhuna Fatiha / God mercy on his soul!). Mahmud II was devoted to many works of the highest degree in any field. He opened many new schools, and ordered to build large buildings. All the great mosques of Istanbul were repaired in his time. The bridge was built in Unkapani his time. In Mecca, he had built a madrasa and mend the Great Mosque (Mescid-i Aksa) in the holy city of Jerusalem. The poet and Sümbülzâde Vehbi Kececizâde Izzet Molla died at this time.
His sons: Abdülmecid I *, * Abdulaziz, 4 Sehzades names Ahmet, Bayezid, veliaht Abdulhamid, Suleyman, 2 Sehzades called Mehmed Murad Nizameddin, Abdullah Osman.
His daughters: Emine Sultan, Sultan Hamide, Hayriye Sultan, Sultan Saw, * Saliha Sultan, Ayse Sultan, Sultan Atike *, 2 Fatma Sultan, Sultan Münire, Mihrimah Sultan *, * Adile Sultan.